Class Notes (808,703)
Canada (493,376)
FNF 100 (80)

Health Disparities in Canada & understanding social gradient_mynotes.doc

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
Family Studies
FNF 100
Dan Mahoney

Health Disparities in Canada (09/23/13) -Health disparities came about in the 1980s, before that health was outlined only biologically now health is defined as more than just disease; there was a real paradigm shift. Emerging Definitions of Health -There was a move to a more complex understanding of health & well being including acute & chronic illness. Current defn states that health is a complete state of physical, mental & social well-being & not merely the absence of disease & infirmity Influences on health -Health is not simply about keeping fit: feel in control, being able to make choices, coping w/ and managing day-day activities, taking measures to improve life circumstances, having access to health care (can they make appts, is it close to where they live, how long are waiting time). Health depends on the amt of autonomy in ppl’s lives. Health Disparities -“One of the major findings w/in health disparities literature over the past 15 yrs is that disparities exist over a vast array of health & disease outcomes, including risk factors & behaviours. Whether the health outcome is a measure of health status, eg. life expectancy, subjective appraisal of health, a disease outcome such as diabetes, health behaviour such as smoking, clear outcome disparities exist b/w diff groups in Cdn societ.” (Frolich et al, 2006) *We need to better understand what groupings look like then figure out which group is most at risk -Health disparities are differences that occur by gender, race & ethnicity, educational level, income level, disability (access-limited mobility), geographic location and/ sexual orientation. These are predictors about health conditions & may depend on amt of health literacy. -Women & men experience diff health condition, eg. breast cancer vs. prostate cancer. Avoidable/Unavoidable cause of death -unavoidable: health problems that are related to a person’s genetic structure, ie. Genetic predisposition; you have to be content about your health outcomes, you don’t have a choice instead you can look for ways to adapt & not make your health outcomes define who you are. -potentially avoidable: especially when they are related to factors, eg. living in low- income neighbourhoods (can create a social policy to enhance quality of life) or having unequal access to medical care & info (can hire more doctors, health practitioners, build more health care centers.) Examples of Health disparities -Lack of physicians in rural areas -low health literacy (inability to identify -unequal treatment of minorities risk, don’t know terminology, ignorant -lack of ethnic diversity among health about health info & institutions, etc. care providers (someone patients can -lack of insurance relate to, eg. speaking the same -exposure to environmental risks (low language) water quality, food quality, no acces) -poverty & cancer Materialist/Structuralist explanation (about how disparities exist & persist) -The material conditions under which ppl live their lives impact health & health choices. Disparities depend on how society organizes & distributes economic & social resources to individuals, families & communities as well as the position in the occupational hierarchy influence our health. These factors look at the relation b/w social class phenomenon, social hierarchy & health. Cultural/Behavioural explanations (micro-level explanation, looks at what individuals are doing in groups) -There are diff distribution of health behaviours b/w socioeconomic groups, eg. smoking, obesity & physical activity (how ppl are eating, do they get exercise?) *The materialist explanation is much more structural/macro-level vs. behaviourist is more a micro-level explanation (eg. maybe changing ppl’s behaviours will change society as a whole based on health outcomes) “These causes of health inequalities are simply representative of what we call opportunities, resources (access to clean H2O, money/jobs, health care, air/soil quality, neighbourhoods, social resources) & constraints (breadth of opportunity, who has access/not)” (Frolich et al. 2006) * *Emphasis the societal conditions…rather than the traditional focus on the biomedical & behavioural risk factors such as cholesterol, body weight & physical activity, diet & tobacco use. People w/ less social networks tend to have higher mortality rates. Social Determinants of Health -Aboriginal status -Food Security -Early life -Housing -Education -Income Distribution -Employment & working condition -Social exclusion Layers of Influence 2 layer: eg. smoking, drinking, diet, lifestyle rd 3thayer: social exclusion 5 layer: broader framework (Dahlgren & Whitehead, 1991) Integrated aspects of health -good environments for early childhood for 5 years old) (stimulation, parenting, encouragement -role of friendship & social cohesion -dangers of social exclusion -effects of alcohol & drugs -food security -impact of work & employment -impact on long-term disadvantage *This process of social deprivation has a major impact on health & premature death. Belonging to a social network of communication & mutual obl
More Less

Related notes for FNF 100

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.