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The Early Years.Social Exclusion and Childhood Development. Lecture Notes(3).doc

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Ryerson University
Family Studies
FNF 100
Dan Mahoney

The Early Years: Social Inclusion and Childhood Development FNF100 Take Home Final Exam ▯ Handout: Monday, November 25 2013 th ▯ Due: Wednesday, December 4 2013 at 3pm th School of Nutrition drop off box Hard copy submissions only NO extensions of due date!! 10% off for each day late – lateness begin at 3 pm on the 4th Typed and double-spaced nd Study Period: Monday December 2 2013 Canadian Statistics on Children ▯ Canadian children make up 16% of the total population ▯ Majority of Canadian children live in large urban centres ▯ Majority of Canadian children under the age of 12 years lived in two biological parent families Child Statistics II ▯ About 4 % of Canadian children live with one biological parent and a step parent ▯ 16 % of children under the age of 12 live with a lone parent - the vast majority with their mother ▯ 1% of Canadian children live in adoptive or other type of family arrangements Theories of Child Rearing Child Rearing and Socialization ▯ “Socialization is the process by which children become part of their social group and thus, acquire the norms and values of their culture, learn to control their impulses, and develop their identity or self-concept” (Howe and Bukowski, 2000) Mechanistic Models 1 Organismic Models ▯ Development results from interaction between the child and the social and physical environment ▯ Children are oriented toward achieving certain end points, such as a balance between their urges and the opportunities for satisfying these urges Family as Primary Agent of Socialization ▯ Parent are the prime socializing force: – conscious - direct teaching of the child – unconscious - indirect messages by acting as role models – children also observe their social and physical worlds – collectively provide opportunities for children to test and compare their beliefs with other family members Family Life and Child Socialization and Development Parenting Styles... ▯ Parenting styles has a direct impact on child socialization ▯ The literature recognizes two distinct dimensions parenting styles – emotional quality of the parent/child interaction – the level of control the parent exerts on the child Parenting Styles… 2 Parental Dimensional Styles ▯ Parental emotional qualities ranges from from warm, accepting and responsive to the child’s needs and behaviours to rejecting, cold and unresponsive ▯ Parental control can vary from restrictive and demanding to permissive Four Socialization Styles Family Structure... Family Structure II ▯ Divorce or martial disharmony has been associated with emotional, behavioural and developmental problems in children ▯ Overt marital conflict is strongly related to disrupted parenting and child adjustment than is overall marital satisfaction or quality Family Socio-Economic Status 3 How do Early Childhood Experiences, such as the Child Socialization Process, Affect Health, functioning and Well-being? Early Childhood Development as a Social Determinant of Health ▯ Research indicates that many factors contribute to whether children develop into healthy competent adults: • Innate or genetic characteristics • Prenatal conditions • Physical environment • Nutrition • Family attributes and interaction • Peers, the community, and schools • Larger socio-economic environment Foundations of Adult Health ▯ Foundations of adult health are laid in early childhood and birth ▯ Slow growth and poor emotional support raise the lifetime risk of poor physical health and reduced physical cognitive and emotional functioning in adulthood Infant Experience… ▯ Important to later health because of continued malleability of biological systems ▯ Cognitive, emotional and sensory inputs programme the brain’s responses – insecure emotional attachment and poor stimulation can lead to: • Reduced readiness for school, • Low educational attainment • Problem behaviour, and • Risk of social marginalization in adulthood Infant Experience II 4 Parent-Child Relat
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