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Lecture

Week 8 Outline W13 - Dyeing.doc

10 Pages
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Department
Fashion
Course Code
FFD 200
Professor
Kirsten Schaefer

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Description
FFD 200 - Textiles II Week 8 Old Text - Chapter 9, pgs. 155-170 & Chapter 19, pages 381-393. New Text- Chapter 9, pgs. 190-207 & Chapter 19, pages 441-456. Key Terms Acid dye Fluorescent Piece dyed Aramid (Kevlar/Nomex M) Fluorescent dye Pigment Azoic dye Fluoropolymer (Teflon™, Reactive Cationic dye PTFE) Rubber Colourfastness Garment dyed Spandex (Lycra™), Cross dyed Glass Spectrophotometer Developed, direct dye Grin thru Spun dyed Disperse dye Lab dip Stainless steel Dye Lastol Stock dyed Dye lot Metallic Sulfur 硫硫 Elastoester Metamerism Union dyed Elastomer Mordant, natural dyes Vat Elsterell-p Neoprene Yarn dyed Lecture Questions 1. What is an elastomer 硫硫硫 (spandex, elastoester, elasterelle-p & lastol)? * What is elastomers? - is a natural or synthetic polymer - at room temperature, can be stretched repeatedly to at least twice the original length - return to approximately original length without focus it - Two type of stretch: power stretch & comfort stretch  Used in products for which only elasticity is desired  lighter than power stretch fabrics  apparel and interior textiles, ex: outerwear and sportswear, slipcover, bottom sheets a.Spandex - Called Lycra™, 1st manufactured elastic fiber (1958) - superior to rubber in strength and durability  Aesthetics  seldom used alone in fabric  Dyeability of the fiber and good strength, resulting fashionable colors and prints in sheer garments  needs no cover yarns since it takes dye( can reduces the cost and fabric weight)  Durability  more resistant to degradation than rubber  resistant to body oils, perspiration, lotions, and cosmetics that degrade rubber  good shelf life  not deteriorate with age as quickly as rubber does  flex life is 10 times greater than rubber  Comfort  have moisture regain of 0.75- 1.3% FFD 200 W13  lower- denier yarns= lightweight  Care  resistant to dilute acids, alkalis, bleaches and dry- cleaning solvents  machine washable  thermoplastic, melting point 446- 518.F  occurs on aged/ over stressed fabric > grin-through  Uses  used to support, shape / mold the body /to keep textiles from stretching out of shape during use  primarily in knit foundation garments, action-wear, compression sportswear to reduce chafing and friction  higher percentages of spandex provides greater body contouring or support properties  medical uses: surgical and support hose , bandages and surgical wraps  2- 40% spandex with other fibers in common b.Elastoester - trade name Rexe - an elastomer based on polyether-ester - from japanese textile firm Teijin, Ltd - fiber- forming substance , 50% least than aliphatic( 硫硫硫 polyether’s weight - 35% least than polyester weight - fiber has 600% elongation potential , a tenacity of 1.0 g/d, and elasticity of 80% at elongations over 200%( properties are slightly less than spandex - washable and can withstand high temperatures with alkalis - No adverse discoloring or yellowing when exposed to chlorine bleach - increase dyeability and print clarity - silklike, used in outwear and interior textile c. Elasterelle-p (Multelastester, PTT) - elastic bi-component with helical coil - good inherent(硫硫) stretch with excellent recovery - strong, durable fiber, easy to care, soft, have good bulk - dyed easily, heat set - the stretch and recovery are varied by adjusting spinning conditions - uses in active sportswear, leisure wear, and underwear d.Lastol - elastic cross-linked copolymer olefin wit low but significant crystanllinity - at least 95 % by weight of ethylene - has superior 500% - recovery properties compared to other olefin fibers - more chemically stable than other olefins and more resistant to heat - used in activewear , easy-care stretch apparel 2. What are the properties of rubber? Neoprene? What are the features, benefits and disadvantages of these fibres for the customer? What is the difference between power stretch and comfort stretch? Rubber  the properties: FFD 200 W13 - manufactured fiber including…  is a hydrocarbon such as natural rubber, polyisoprene, polybutadiene, copolymers of dienes and hydrocarbons, or amorphous polyolefins  is a copolymer of acrylonitrile and a diene composed of not more than 50%but at least 10% by weight of acrylonitrite lastrille: used as a gneric descryiption for fibers falling in this category  is a polychloroprene or a copolymer of chloroprene .at least 35% by weight of the fiber forming substance is compsed of chloroprene units vulcanized/ cross-linked with sulfur - large cross section - round fibers are extruded, rectangular fibers are cut from extruded film - washed with care and never dry-cleaned  benefits: - has an excellent elongation(500%-600%) - excellent recovery - resustance to alkalis  disadvantage: - low tenacity 0.34g/d( limits its use in lightweight garment) - must be 3X larger as spandex yarns>strong - low dye acceptance, hand, and appearance - covered by a yarn of another fiber / other yarns in the fabric - replaced by spandex , now used in narrow elastic fabric - lacks resistance to oxidizing agents - damaged by aging, sunlight, oil, and perspiration - damaged by heat, chlorine, and solvent A. natural rubber - is the oldest elastomer and least expensive - from rubber tree “hevea brasiliensis” B. synthetic rubber - is cross-linked diene polymers - developed after world war II - more common used  Neoprene - synthenic rubber mad from polychloroprene - used as elastomeoc fiber/ supported elastic film - resistant to acids, alkalis, acohols, oils, caustics, and solvents - use in protective gloves and appreal, wetsuits, framing for window glass, technical hoses and belts, coating for wiring • Power stretch:  to exhibit high retractive forces that mold, support, or shape the body  Important in end uses for which holding power and elasticity are needed FFD 200 W13  foundation garment, swimsuit, elastic webbing, support and surgical hose, bathing suits, athletic apparel • Comfort stretch:  to elongate slightly as the body movers and to recover a significant portion of that elongation when the stretching force is removed 3. What is grin thru? - aging fabric will cause end of the thick fibers appear on the surface, those areas of the fabric have lost their elasticity and elongation properties - cannot be remedied - occurs on aged/ over stressed fabric 4. What are the distinguishing characteristics of the following specialized fibres? Aramid (Kevlar, Nomex), glass, Fluoropolymer (PTFE), stainless steel and carbon? a. Aramid - an aromatic polyamide fiber - developed in DuPont Stephanie Kwolek - can be wet-dry spun and round / dog –bone shaped - high tenacity and high resistance to stretch and high temperature - but moderately(硫硫硫) resistant to sunlight - difficult to dye and poor resistance to acids - technology has been developed to dye aramid intense colors for high- visibility protective apparel( used in civil-engineering structures like bridges and elevated highway- support structures) - trade name : Nomex nylon and Kevlar nylon - fire resistance • Nomex - as meta-aramid/ m-aramid - normal tenacity - lower specific gravity and heat resistance and higher regain - combustion with low smoke generation - used in protective apparel, such as firefighters’ and race-car drivers’ suits, and flame-retardant interiors for aircraft, covers for laundry pressers and ironing boards • Kelvar - high tenacity para-aramid/ p-aramid - lightweight and fatigue, damage resistant - 5X stronger than and same weight than steel - 43% lower in density(硫硫) than fiberglass - used in reinforcements of radial tires and other mechanical rubber goods - Kevlar 29 found in protective apparel, cables and cordage, lightweight and bullet and knife resistant, and as replacement for asbestos in brake linings and gaskets - Kevlar 49 found in plastic reinforcement fiber for boat hulls, aircraft, aerospace uses, and other composite uses (highest tenacity of aramids) b. Glass - substance is glass FFD 200 W13 - made from sand, silica, and limestone, combine with additives of feldspar and boric acid - round rod-like filaments - does not burn - suitable end uses where the danger of fire is a problem (draperies buildings) - problem use in apparel because severe skin irritation from tinny broken fibers (broke when bent) - extremely fine filament are resistant to breaking and abrasion - half strength of regular glass fiber, but tenacity of 8.2( greater that most of fibers) - used in window-treatment fabric - • Miraflex by Beta Fiberglas( Owens Corning Fiberglas Cor) - Ficomponent glass fiber - Two forms of glass fused together into a single filament> fiber cools, cause the filament to twist in a irregular fashion along its length - Soft, resilient, flexible, and form filling - Can be carded / needle to make a fiber batt used in home insulation and composites - High tenacity but low elongation but excellent elasticity in narrow range. - Brittle, poor flex abrasion resistance, and break when bent - Heavy, nonabsorbent and resistant to sunlight and most chemicals - High melting point> 2400oC - Trade name: Fiberglas, beta glass, chem-glass….etc - Cannot machine wash, care with hand wash too - Resist soil, spots and stains can be wiped off with damp cloth (do not require wash frequently, dry-cleaning is not recommend) - No ironing, smooth and hung to dry - Oils may turn white fabric to grey, attract dirt and soil, and oxidize with age (wash can not whiten the material) In fabric: - Used in interiors such as flame- retardant draperies In technical: - used for noise abatement, fire protection ,
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