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In Fashion - Chapter 7.docx

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FSN 123
Luann Lafrenz

Chapter 7: Product Development Product Development: the teaming of market and trend research, with the merchandising, design and technical processes that develop a final product - Used by wholesale manufacturers and retailers What is a Product Line and Who Develops It? - Line: not only encompasses the individual item of apparel or accessories but also the entire season’s production from that manufacturer; divided into groups of garments, linked by a common theme (colour, fabric) - Each garment is known as a style number - Collection: describe an expensive line in the US/Europe - Copying from designers is common; copied line-for-line in similar fabric, knockoffs; adapted in a cheaper fabric, anchors; reworked from another season differently - Designers work 3 seasonal lines at a time; monitor current, finishing next season’s, develop new line for following season Role of the Merchandiser - “The 6 Rights” to be successfully accomplished - Research who the “right” customer is - The link among design staff, production facilities and sales staff Role of Designers - Create by sketching/CAD, draping on model - Must consider practical business in mind – budget, quality, labour, availability Role of the Producer Apparel Manufacturers - Operations required to produce apparel, from buying fabric to selling and shipping garments - Producer who handles all phases of a garment’s production - Purchases the fabric and trimmings needed - Handle the selling and shipping of finished goods; close quality control can be maintained Apparel Jobbers - Designing, planning, purchasing, usually the cutting, selling and shipping - Employ design staff to create various seasonal lines, buy sketches from freelance designers - Buys fabric and trimmings necessary to produce the styles, make samples, grade patterns - Takes and receives shipping Apparel Contractors (Outside shop) - Specializes in sewing; may also perform the cutting operation from patterns - Article is sewn, finished, inspected, pressed, hung/packaged, returned to manufacturer - Each operator sews only a section of the garment; section work/piece work  adjustments take a lot of time and labour / delays - May arrange to work exclusively with one/more jobbers reserving the right to work for others when they are not fully employed Advantages - Easy to hire and train suitable workers - Reduced amount of capital to meet regular payrolls Disadvantages - No one has full responsibility for the finished product - May use same facilities and get better treatment because of advantages they offer The Product Development Process - Effective integrated system of product development may include: - Marketing, forecasting, merchandising, product line development, inventory control, costing, human resources, etc - Major differences in development process is the # of people involved and how they communicate/interact Stage 1: Planning a Line - Designers/product development team works under direction of merchandiser - Must research on trends, colour, fabrics; review older seasons - Form and maintain a positive image in the marketplace - Reviews the designs so it is marketable to the target market Step 2: Creating the Design Concept - Designs for individual garments; sketched/developed in muslin - Weighs design on individual merit and suitability in the line as a whole - Cost analysis; many designs are discarded at this point Step 3: Developing the Designs - Creates a production pattern in the garment size of its samples; one+ are cut - Garment is sewn by the designer’s assistant who is a seamstress- sample hand - Presented to executives and managers of the company, people in sales, purchasing, production, costs - Many designs are discarded; others need to be modified back at the design department, few are accepted – assigned a style number Computer-Aided Design - CAD is giving designers the freedom to explore and manipulate their designs - Test various colours, fabrics, combos, drapes, folds, textures, creases are included - Computer image is used to create a pattern with darts, seams, markings Linked CAD/CAM/CIM - Expanding with new technology provide information internally to suppliers and retailers Stage 4: Planning Production - Sourcing, determining where the components of a garment (fabric, thread, lining) will be purchased and where it will be cut and sewn - Fabrics must be ordered, cost out so selling price can be determined - Money need to finance production; all these steps must be completed before production - Samples represented to retail buyers at seasonal shows - Attention = production; no attention = dropped from line Stage 5: Production Cutting - Once the garment is slated, it is graded to each of the various sizes to be made - Pieces are then laid out on a long piece of paper called a marker; success depends on accuracy with so many layers - Spreader (laying-up machine) carries the material along a guide on either side of the cutting table, spreading it evenly - Cutting process is computer-assisted/computerized - Bundling – the pieces of each pattern tied into bundles according to size; done by hand Sewing - Industrial sewing machines perform specialized functions - Single-hand operations still exists; 1 operator sews the entire garment - Used for high-priced garments produced in small quantities - Modular manufacturing system; teams of 7-9 produce entire garments, passing them stage by stage Finishing the Product - Garments need to be turned inside out, label must be sewn - Some are washed to prevent shrinkage, dyed - Pressed, folded/hung; floor ready- bar-coded price tickets attached and shipping documents- adds costs but is speedy Inspecting the Product - Fabric, dye quality are checked, cutting, sewing, stitch length, seam type - Quality assurance; the product meeting the standards established for it Stage 6: Distributing the Line - Sales tickets and bar codes; sent to retailers by truck, rail, air, sea - When reorders come in, they only recut the garments that are most in demand; more fabrics and colours to max the sales Specializing by Product - Apparel producers are typically specialists, producing apparel for a particular group (age, gender); usually with
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