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Painting and Sculpture in the 15th Century.doc

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Ryerson University
FSN 132
Joanne Mc Neish

Lecture 9: Painting and Sculpture in the 15 Century th 12.2 11.35 - 13 century art - Gothic - Less Gothic, more naturalistic (Classical period) - Through Roman art (artifacts) - Costume: not at all typical of medieval costumes - Virgin Mary large (12.2) - Building: Classical entablature, Classical forms (12.2) - Renaissance: rebirth of Classical antiquity (different from brief revivals during Gothic era) - Increase in naturalism 12.2 7.31 - Continuous frieze - Hierarchical proportions (12.2): much less naturalistic 11.36 11.37 - Representations of architecture 12.2 11.36 Similarities: - Quatrefoil frames - Hierarchical proportions - Use of space Differences: - Abstract (11.36) in terms of use of line (no modeling of light and shade) - Drapery - Greater naturalism compared to earlier medieval art 12.4 (International Gothic style) - Greater naturalism 11.37 - All heads virtually the same (11.37) - Suggestions of space (11.37) - Pattern behind flattens space (12.4) - Individual characteristics of fabric represented (12.4) - Individualism is much more naturalistic - Sitting down does not reduce his height (11.37) - Contour lines are not naturalistic (11.37) - Much richer (12.4) - surface patterns - Characteristic of IGS is surfaces 12.29 11.37 12.9 - Background more important - More convincingly moving in space - Greater depth - Pretty architecture - IGS treated architecture as decorative as well - Dramatic change with skewed view of entrance 12.29 12.30 Chartres 13 century - Colour depends on material (ex. glass cannot be pink) - Same colour pallet for two manuscript illumination 12.30 Giotto: Resurrection 1305 - Methods of working and materials - Fresco painting (Giotto) - simpler in terms of amount of material - Tempra (12.30) - Difference between North and South, fresco much more important in Italy Petrarch 1304 - 1374 Dante: Divine Comdey 1321 Boccaccio: Decameron begun 1349 Excellent Latin scholars Bubonic Plague or Black Death 1348 (revival stalls for 50 years or so - begins again around 1500) Written in Italian - before this date, written in Latin 12.20 - City Halls becoming important at this time Lorenzettu, Good Government, Palazzo, Pubblico, Siena 1348 Not in text - Individual expressions - Clear representation - Simplistic in terms of the fact that it was done on fresco 12.25 12.4 - More depth (12.4) - Hierarchical proportions (12.4) - Powerful figure (12.4) - Drapery dark colour; gigantic inside Gothic niche - Sense of monumentality - More decorative (12.25); frame relates to forms being represented - Gold halos pose issue with natural forms 10.25-10.27 12.10 - No physical suffering/torturing (10.25) - Giotto: figures moving in space - Medeival imagination extended by Giotto - 200 years after Giotto, Michelangelo also painted judgement day The Early Renaissance Qudecompressor a are needed to see this picture. th - For most of the 15 century, Florence was the intellectual, financial, and artistic center of Renaissance Italy - Pursuit of humanism and revival of Classical texts - Courts throughout Italy vied with each other for prominent humanist scientists, writers, architects, painters, and sculptors - Revival of Platonic (Plato) ideas The Early Renaissance in Italy 15 century - Moving in different directions - Complicated as we look at individual artists and the direction they take - Florence 13.27 - Compare to 12.30 and 12.8 - Think of new style - Beauty in terms of surfaces and textures - Colour - saturated (tempra) - Each individual appears different - Wonderful collection of portraits (13.27) - Excellent foreshortening - Perspective inaccurate - Still trying to locate them in vast space 12.3 12.4 Masaccio: Madonna Enthroned 1426 (not in text) Every artist wants to out do the artist that came before them - Giotto is not using cast shadows - Baby: more babyish, less adult-like - Clear light source (now understand where light is coming from) - cast shadows (Masaccio) - Throne - Classical style - she is sitting more comfortabling in throne Important terms that conern the way images are made and perceived: - Linear or scientific perspective (picture plane, vanishing point, orthographs) - Atmospheric or aerial perspective - Chiaroscuro, modeling in light and shadow - The concept of “monumentality” Miscellaneous terms: - For Altarpieces: diptych, triptych, polyptych - Methodology (see BLUE BOX page 535) Yellow box p. 498 Dedicated, smart, not worried about mowing fields, great deal of education Applied, not necessarily to religious views, but where you have to behave in an ethical fashion “How great and wonderful is the dignity of the human body; secondly, how lofty and sublime the human soul, and finally ho great and illustrious is the excellence of man himself made up of these two parts” Science - All books written out by hand (expensive and with mistakes) - Invention of printing press by Goutenbourg - 1450*
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