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History of Art FSN 132 Week 1 Lecture Notes

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FSN 132
Julia Scalzo

History of Art FSN 132 – Week 1 Prehistory in Europe and Australia (Chapter 1, W1.1) Upper Paleolithic (50 000 – 10 000 B.C.) - Pala(old), Lithic (stone) - Stone Age - Characteristic of Paleolithic Art – Naturalistic depictions of animals, and schematic depictions of humans Upper Paleolithic Sculpture - Artists made small sculptures out of ivory, bone, clay, and stone - Depict humans, animals, or a combination of the two Venus of Willendorf, from Willendorf, Austria - 25 000 – 21 000 B.C. - Limestone - Fits in palm of hand - Naturalistic because we can clearly tell it is a female figure - Idealized because of breasts, and size - More attention to detail on the front, so was meant to be viewed from the front - Example of a Paleolithic sculpture - 1.1a, 1.1b, 1.1c TECHNIQUE Sculpture in the round – any sculpture that is detached from original material so all sides can be seen Relief – sculpture in a more pictorial way, some of the original material remains to form a background High Relief – the image stands out from the background plane Low Relief – Surface of the image is closer to the background plane Upper Paleolithic Paintings - Caves are well preserved due to the fact that most are limestone and have been sealed for thousands of years - Paintings that have survived are found deep within the caves where it is difficult to reach and is inhabitable Lascaux - Most famous examples of cave paintings are at Lascaux, France - Consist of a range of animals and a few human stick figures - Painted with earth colored pigments, such as brown, black, yellow, and red - Pigments were made from minerals such as ocher, hematite, and manganese Hall of the Running Bulls, Lascaux, France - 15 000 – 13 000 B.C. - Painted on limestone rock - Bulls are superimposed over other animals – artists did not always cover up previous artwork with new artwork - 1.12 “Chinese Horse,” Lascaux, France - 15 000 – 13 000 B.C. - Painted on limestone rock - 3 – dimensional-like - Precise lines - Showcases movement - Too naturalistic for time period – hoax? - 1.13 World on the Window One Rock Paintings of Australia – 75 000/50 000 B.C. Australian Wandjina or “Cloud Spirit”, no date - Appear in numerous rock pictures - Usually painted in black, red, and yellow on white ground - Depicted frontally with large heads, massive upper bodies, and lower bodies that taper towards the feet - Big eyes and nose, usually no mouth - Dreamtime – a mythological plane of existence - W1.1 Men and Women Hunting Kangaroos, no date - Dreamtime - W1.3 Kangaroo with Lightning Man, no date - Dreamtime - W1.4 Mesolithic - Mess (middle), Lithic (stone) - Period of transit
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