Fashion, The Body and Identity II
For Plus-Size Men
- Discussion article
- Review of Chubstr website – gives them their expertise and tips for styling
- Market that is not catered towards
-Blackface- old theatre makeup…
- Barbie and Ideal femininity – made of plastic
1. Identity to Identities
a. Black women and hair
b. People with disabilities and fashion
c. Gay men and body image
2. Queering Identities
3. Review assignment
a. Object analysis
Intersectionality- Kimberle Crenshaw 1989
- law student
- US antidiscrimination law wasn’t protecting black women
- Black women were the last to be hired and the first to be fired because of
- Being discriminated because of both gender and racial identity
- Intersectionality – black women weret being protected because they were
looking at one identity at a time- gender or race
o Our identity is multi-dimensional
o Our identity is comprised of all our different identity categories
o Each identity category intersects and interacts to form our complete
- Individual-> society all the categories we belong to add to our identity-
ability, gender, social class, culture, age…. If affects the way society looks at
you and how you look at society … affects our choice of clothing
Politics of Hair
- gender, race, sexuality..
- “Good Hair”- long straight silky seemingly white
- Peter Brown- black people and white people were from different species-
white people had hair while black people have wool.
- Hose slaves had to iron their hair to look as white as possible
- Slaves in the field would wear scarfs around their hair, on their day off the
women got together and would braid their hair - Black women having natural hair showed –power, pride, resistance, and
challenge- it was a political statement
- Angela David- activist for women and natural hair
- 90s- Naomi Campbell-pin straight hair= upper class- natural hair was lower
- Black women were told to have their hair straightened, braided or short
because it was more professional
- Philomena Kwao- natural short hair, but is forced to wear a wig when
- White women have different types of hair too- curly, wavy etc.
- Body work- hair is always a work in progress… intensified by consumer
- Oprah Winfrey- first time in 12 years she had natural hair 2012…
- Joan Small- one of the first models in vogue that had her natural hair
How might black women’s intersection with age influence the way in which they
style their hair?
Do other identity groups have their own “good hair” myths?
People with Disabilities- Izzy Camilleri
- wheelchairs, always have to have modifications
- Izzy- Toronto based designer- luxury clothes (featured in the devil wears
prada).. she had one customer who was in a wheelchair, and had to have
everything modified. Izzy worked with her and opened her eyes to the
market. IZ Adaptive Clothing- clothes that work best for the seated person-
men and women. It’s about accepting people no different from you and I.
Very successful. Fashionable clothes for people who use wheelchairs. Offers
her clients inclusion and self expression
- Amputees. Prosthetic limbs.
- Aimee Mullins, Mario Calla… runway models. Pro- esthetic. It is an accessory.
Aimee- olympian modeling in alexander mcqueen . One day she can be 5,8’
one day she can be 6,2”.. she has 12 sets of legs. Changeable accessory.
Architects of their own identity . Mario- Hugo Boss gave him shorts..
- Kelly Knox- born without a left arm past the elbow. She doesn’t try to hide it.
She wants to show everyone this is who I am.
- In many ways they represent the western beauty ideal but they only deviate
from the ideal in one way- a disability.
Gay Men and Body Image- Interview
- brief encounters, top male models showing off the new boxers and briefs
- gay men show more concern over their weight and appearance
- threat of rejection from partners and gay community
- they feel like there is a stereotype they need to live up to. Feminized, well-
groomed, certain speech, etc. - Gay Sub-Cultures- Leather, trendy, preppy, jock, drag… each has their own
standards. Added pressure
How might gay men’s intersection with race and/or disability influence their body
- intersections.. race, gender, culture.. harder for certain men to come out
- In media.. gay men are 99% Caucasian
What are the personal costs of deviating from the appearance expectations of your
“community” or sub-culture?
- Fab magazine- Gay man in wheelchair…. Attitude of the community toward
my difference. Getting the community to understand that I am no different.
Judith Butler- Gender Trouble.. Queer theory.. troubling & challenging categories of
- Contests fixed binary identity categories… either male or female.. 1% of
o Classifying people into binary categories…
o Either homosexual or heterosexual relationship.
o Sexuality can be simply divided into categories- queer theory
- Challenges that one identity category is naturally connected to another
o Males are masculine, Females are feminine.
o Males can be feminine and females can be masculine
o You can feel like any gender you choose
We wear clothes to hide ourselves but we wear clothes that show which gender we
Andre Pejic.. models for men and women. He can perform any gender.
Casey Legler.. she models gendered masculine clothes. She can perform masculine
Gender is independent. We have the choice.
J.W. Anderson.. challenged traditionally gendered clothing… skirts for men- very
masculine because you can show your thigh which is very manly…
People may still be faced with resistance if they try this… Strong control.. gender
clothes have to match your sex. The power of fashion is to be able to challenge this. We can move to a new equality
by our choice of clothes in editorials and what we show in the media and present to
Socially constructed- Race
Pantone to cataloged all the different skin colours ..
Shows it is more diverse than we think.. problematizes race..
Desire for categorizing, but question what do these do? Grant more privilege..
hierarchy… what does this mean..
Idea behind it is that you are not just black white or brown
Identities are complicated.. made up of many categories
Different ways to understand identities… we are looking at it from the western point
What do the identity categories miss out on?
Fashion Concepts and Theories
Fashion PR: And Inside Perspective
Own and run Faulhaber Communications
Ryerson BCOMM & Marketing
24 Years in PR/Marketing/ Retail
Mother of two
Will be discussing
- Career path
- The relevance of PR
- What we do
- Challenges and changes in the industry
- Where that leaves you
Started.. it was just her and a laptop
Started at Fairweather was an excellent salesperson
Identify what you are good at early on
Traveled around working with merch. and marketing Joe for Chaock.. she did everything. In her 20s, she knew she wasn’t just a sales
person. She could identify opportunities.. (when to add on a green jump suit etc.)
Isellideas.com- her own website
She doesn’t have business plan.. sometimes causes trouble, but she knew that this
was the right thing for her
Who is Faulhaber Comm?
They are a highly interactive agency, specializing in connecting lifestyle brands to
media, trade and consimers
Services: branding, business development, graphic design, event planning… etc. etc.
When they have a client they must ask- what do they need?
- Build relationships
PR: long list of other things not just media relations.. (unlike advertising)
She tells them how it is…
Why brands come to them
- extension of their brands
- strong relationships
- passionate& dedicated
- high touch
- creativity & ideas
- polish (how you look, say.. presentation)
Product Placement (get paid to place products on people… Nelly’s necklace)
Party Planning (a lot of work, they have owned them or have been parts of them,
Design exchange anniversary gala, involved in many levels… paid to promote them,
exhibition launch- was fully responsible)
Brand launches- essence event, ambassador for the client, what do they need?...
models ambassadors etc.
“I know who I am I know what I’m not”
Social Media- Instagram, twitter, facebook
Experiential Marketing- design trade fair.. had to come up with something that
would get them coverage..
Store Launch- EQ3..
Fashion Show Planning- Vawk.
Backstage Charity Initiatives – works with ovarian cancer
“if you don’t ask you don’t get”
Challenges and changes- New Media
Relevance of New Media- things to consider when consulting a client
- turning followers into customers
- how to make money using social media marketing
- getting followers or friends on Twitter and facebook
- getting subscribers to your blog
- getting traffic to your website, blog of facebook page
- .. etc.
Tastemakers- Less paid..
What is your unique selling proposition? Why you?
What makes you valuable? Sell yourself… push harder, work hard
Need internships for resume
Volunteer at Fashion Week?
School isn’t enough
Come with ideas
Make yourself invaluable
Traveled? Babysat? Etc.
Fashion, Art and Fierceness
Gender as Performance- guy model used t model lipstick marketing says “I am the
1. Aesthetic regime
2. Is fashion art?
3. Fashion and fierceness
a. Tina Turner
b. Lady Gaga
4. Return assignments
What are Aesthetics?
1. Social construction of visual appearance 2. Shared in a cultural and historic moment – it changes throughout time.. it’s
not a fixed idea, changes in cultures… it is not universal
3. Style is a nuanced articulation of aesthetics
Aesthetic Regime- Dominant belief system
- taste in a culture… what is beautiful, in practices and understandings..
western beauty ideal
- dominant belief system .. held by gatekeepers.. Vogue.. people who influence
beauty.. editors, celebrities, designers
- part of this is change in introducing new elements
- only acceptable if it is legitimized by the gatekeepers
Process of transformation
1. challenge status quo
3. acceptance of rejection
4. incorporation of elimination
5. new aesthetic regime
Main example- influxes of Japanese designers in Paris- changed the structure in
clothing (issey miyake) combined eastern and western techniques. Used the latest
technology. New Shapes seamless garments. 29 Japonese designers show their
collection in Paris between 1970-2002. New aesthetic. Asymmetrical, architectural.
Are consumers the new gatekeepers?
- Gabi fresh… plus size blogger
- Fashion illustrations of curvy women (killer curves)
- Are they helping to change the regime
Strategies to change the regime
1. Appealing to logics of the regime
a. Logics of commerce (giving feedback on their blogs to retailers about
type of clothing they want)
b. Logics of art (if you are creative you should be able to make it in every
2. Publicize innovations and impediments
3. Allying with more powerful actors
What other marginalized consumer groups are using social media to change the
Little People Big world…
Plus size mannequins
Marc Jacobs and Takahi Murakami
- fashion is a copy.. it is not a true art form.. - Richard Martin- art and fashion are two separate domains, they have
different motives (fashion is a business, art has much more deeper and
higher ends... social of cultural change)
- Fashion is a wearable dwelling, special design, similarly architecture has
taken inspiration from fashion
- Dita von Teese- first 3d printed dress, designed on an Ipad.. held together by
Recognition of fashion in museums
- costume institute 1937 Diana Vreeland
- 1946 merged with metropolitan
- 35000 garments and accessories
- Canada- patricia harris gallery of textiles and costume 50000 artifacts
McCord Museum oldest patchwork quilt
- Savage beauty exhibit- Business or benefit?
o McQueen’s collection th
o Attracted 700 000 people, 8 most attended show for metropolitan
Why do you think there is such prejudice against fashion?
Kids grow up to fashion..
Fashion and Fierceness
Madison Moore… studied with Ben.. Teaching in the US
- A spectacular way of being in the world a transgressive over-performance of
the self through aesthetics. This over-performance works simultaneously to
change the dynamics of a room by introducing one’s sartorial, creative
presence into the space as well as it is to crystallize, highlight, and push….”
Theory of Fierceness
1. Owning your space through aesthetics
2. Breaking down limiting identity markers
3. Proposing new, fluid identity categories
4. Often used by oppressed groups
Fierceness is a way to fight back and create new identity
- Career over 50 years,
- cover of German vogue, oldest woman to be featured on vogue 73
- challenges ideals of gender and race
- rolling stone cover, sexualized short sequin dress, but it isn’t a pretty shot,
she has muscular arms, she is in action .. 1967
- black women on covers of anything was rare. 1974- first black woman on
cover of vogue
- challenges what it means to be a black woman of the time .. what I means to
be a respectable woman/ black woman of the time
- the Supremes Lady Gaga
- gender as fluid
- idea of gender as no binary, the way she used fashion and body language
- performs ideas of femininity, Aleandro- polarized ideal of femininity
- male type drag… with a purple ponytail…
- transcends the whole notion of gender.. genderless? Own expression of
- destable our notions of identity.. power of fashion, stylist, art director.. it has
the power to challenge these ideas
- Disability- hardly see in fashion but she brings it up in paparazzi…
- Is this fierce?
o Representation by a celebrity is a positive. She looks edgy and chic..
fashion statements. Amy Mullins- architectural tool.. help craft your
o Negative. Transcending. Reinforces stereotypes. Lasts for less than a
minute. Temporary- something you can get over. Being disabled
makes you less fabulous…? No longer fierce. Disability is hidden
(private).. not shown to the public.
Fashion concepts and theories Week 9
Fashion as a Business and Cultural Industry
Clear who you are interviewing
State them again in the conclusion
Reference graph in critical analysis
2 or 3 key themes
The theory of Fierceness
1. Owning your space through aesthetics
2. Breaking down limiting identity markers
3. Proposing new. Fluid identity categories
4. Often used by oppressed groups
Madison Moore’s theory…
- Janelle Moore
- Adam Lambart
- Frank ocean
- Grace Jones Mannequins from Ahlens
- Sweden.. different types of mannequins
- skinny male mannequin
Gender as performance and choice
“gender is the repeated stylization of the body, a set of repeated acts within a highly
rigid regulatory frame that congeal over time to produce the appearance of
substance, of a natural sort of being.” –Butler
- labeled categorized and created through language.
- Idea of having a choice is based on language
1. What makes a fashion entrepreneur?
2. Who is my consumer?
3. How do I cast models to benefit my brand?
What is a fashion Entrepreneur?
1. pays a certain price for a product to resell it at a higher price. Focus is on
2. Sees an opportunity and creates an organization to pursue it. They are
looking for gaps in the market. (it’s a way of thinking, nothing about profit, a
3. Take responsibility for creating innovation within an organization (being a
leader within the business)
What makes an entrepreneur?
1. personal attributes (they believe)
2. Environmental factors ( family/friends that supports them, loan or grant
3. Sociological factors (age and role models, more successful when they are
- motivated to make money, all about profit
- business approach, traditional framework
- beat rivals, distinct from other firms
- us versus them.. the best will prevail
- Harry Rosen
- Give back to the community based on their own experiences
- See others in the industry as their peers, others can benefit
- Whatever I do is helping others
- Business of fashion blog. Missionary Identity
- they want to be the agent of change
- create a better world
- personal responsibility to act
- its not about money, its about benefiting the society at large.
- Robyn Kay- started Toronto fashion week, difficult to be a Canadian designer,
goal was to create a platform to help Canadian designers. Celebrating
Canadian fashion was celebrating Canadian culture
Coleen Mills NZ..
Fashion entrepreneurs, biggest challenges tension between being creative but also
realizing the business side of it
Created three categories
1. Creative enterprise orientation
a. Outlet to express their creativity
b. See themselves as a creative person
c. Trisha Hall- stylist =, loves the creativity, sees herself as creative,
stylist for VAWK