Class Notes (838,585)
Canada (510,969)
Fashion (414)
FSN 302 (17)

1930 – 1960.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

FSN 302
Sue Barnwell

1930 – 1960 • WWII had a profound impact on fashion industries in Europe and USA and consequently on the design of clothing • With German invasion of Paris in 1940 the international capital of fashion became cut off from the rest of the world • Chanel shut down in 1939 • Jacques Heim was Jewish and went into hiding while Molyneux and Worth moved to England • Schiaparelli kept her Paris salon open • More than 90 houses carried on business as usual were Lelong, Patou, Rochas, Lanvin, Ricci, Fath and Balenciaga • Some continued to evolve couture styles of the 30s into the 40s • Rationing would be benefit only to the occupiers, no attempt was made to conserve materials or labour and dresses were long and full skirted o Many corseted o Large tall decorated hats • Since none of this could be seen by the rest of the world Pari’s hegemony of fashion came to an end o Every country had to rely on domestic design talent o Designers had to meet the challenge of shortages brought on by the war • Britain rationing system was introduced in 1941 o Regulated the quantity of clothing that could be purchased o Utility Clothing Scheme = controls the amount of fabric and number of trimmings used in clothing (1942) • Inc. Soc. Led by Molyneux, and other designers took task of creating range of clothing meeting requirements using minimal labour and material o Four basic lines were produced – which 32 individual designs were selected for manufacture  Coat  Suit  Dress  Blouse o Mass produced and core CC41 Utility label o Simple but stylish – good proportion and line o Incorporated padded shoulders, nipped in waist and hems just below knee • Textiles strictly controlled • Silk needed to make parachutes = ban on using them for hosiery and clothing • Nylon introduced by Du Pont in America in 1939 o Not yet widely available so offered stockings in rayon and cotton and wool o Women took advantage of wearing ankle socks in summer o Stained their legs and drew a mock back seam on back of calf o Stocking shortage increased popularity of trousers • In attempt to counteract the utility lines – dress fabrics made in bright colours o Printed and woven in repeat patterns kept small to avoid wastage when cutting • Government campaign “Make-do and Mend” remake clothing and update them instead of throwing out • 1940 in USA isolation from Paris lead to explore domestic talent o Mainbocher – firstAmerican designer to run successful house in Paris was back in NYC o two new talents appeared: Norman Norell and Claire McCardell – both women who worked with Hattie Carnedie (best ready wear designer) o throughout war years Norell showed simple sophisticated designs  1942 sequined evening sheaths o 1942 American War Production Board imposed limits on the use of certain textiles mostly silk and wool – McCardell turned to cotton using denim, seersucker, jersey to produce a range of attractive easy to wear designs  many became classics  wrap around “popover” dress of 1942 • the cut of men’s suits, width of women’s skirts, height of heels, colour of shoe leather etc in America – were not as stringent as those in effect in Britain o they did not last so long o restrictions came to end in US in 1946 but in 1948 in Britain • By end of war british andAmerican designers had much sharper internatonal profile • Significant developments in ready to wear clothing • Mass market manufactures improved their skills • After liberation, paris couturiers abandoned the brazen axtravagence of the years of occupation and returned to a simpler look • French needed to win back oversea buyers • 1945 push to revive couture industry – French artists collaborated with designers to produce the Theatre de la Mode, exhibition of wire-frame mini mannequins dresses in couture clothing o same copies of spring/summer collections of that year o used to publicize French fashion as it traveled to London, Barcelona, Stockholm, Copenhagen andAmerica • during postwar years Balmain, Balenciaga, Dior were to emerge as most eminent Parisian designers • 1947 paris was back head of the fashion world – when newly independent designer showed his first collection, the Corolle line o nicknamed the New Look o exaggeration of the late 30s and Occupation styles yet very antithesis of the clothing produced in both UK and US during war o soft rounded shoulders emphasized breasts o waists heavily corseted o hips padded o skirts – and herein lay the scandal- were billowing reaching almost the ankle o New Look lead for prosperous hopes for new future while others saw it waste of time and fabric o Dominated design of women’s clothes till 1954 1950s • Throughout 1950’s women wanted to appear mature, elegant and sophisticated • High fashion remained formal • Tailored suits, twin sets and shirtwaister dresses were worn during the day • Cocktail dresses and immaculately constructed full length gowns for evening • Perfect grooming essential o Hair in a soft waved pageboy or had regular perms o Chignons and French pleats popular o Makeup heavy: pale base, rouge cheekbones, eyebrows finely arched, eyes with dark eyeliner coloured eyeshadow and mascara, red lips • Basic fashion silhouette remained the same throughout the early 50s – period of intense fashion activity – with fashion designers creating new collections twice a year • As decade progressed clothing = less structured and straighter In cut o Subtly taking place in Diors collections which included H-line and A-Line and Y-Line • 1954 Chanel reopened her house and introduced relaxed wearable suits and dresses with hemlines reaching just below knee • Balenciaga rebelled against the New Look, showing tunic tops over long straight skirts and soft tailored suits with stand away collars and ¾ length sleeves o 1957 introduced chemise or sac dresses – which would become a dominant look in 60s • in America Norell, James Galanos, Pauline Triere, Valentina andAnne Klein branched out into ready-to-wear o Claire McCardell continued with her denim and cotton seersucker wrap over dresses and dirndl skirts – introduced jersey pedal pushers with matching tops so short they bared midriff • America excelled in bathingsuits especially
More Less

Related notes for FSN 302

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.