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FSN 302 (17)
Lecture

1930 – 1960.docx

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Department
Fashion
Course
FSN 302
Professor
Sue Barnwell
Semester
Fall

Description
1930 – 1960 • WWII had a profound impact on fashion industries in Europe and USA and consequently on the design of clothing • With German invasion of Paris in 1940 the international capital of fashion became cut off from the rest of the world • Chanel shut down in 1939 • Jacques Heim was Jewish and went into hiding while Molyneux and Worth moved to England • Schiaparelli kept her Paris salon open • More than 90 houses carried on business as usual were Lelong, Patou, Rochas, Lanvin, Ricci, Fath and Balenciaga • Some continued to evolve couture styles of the 30s into the 40s • Rationing would be benefit only to the occupiers, no attempt was made to conserve materials or labour and dresses were long and full skirted o Many corseted o Large tall decorated hats • Since none of this could be seen by the rest of the world Pari’s hegemony of fashion came to an end o Every country had to rely on domestic design talent o Designers had to meet the challenge of shortages brought on by the war • Britain rationing system was introduced in 1941 o Regulated the quantity of clothing that could be purchased o Utility Clothing Scheme = controls the amount of fabric and number of trimmings used in clothing (1942) • Inc. Soc. Led by Molyneux, and other designers took task of creating range of clothing meeting requirements using minimal labour and material o Four basic lines were produced – which 32 individual designs were selected for manufacture  Coat  Suit  Dress  Blouse o Mass produced and core CC41 Utility label o Simple but stylish – good proportion and line o Incorporated padded shoulders, nipped in waist and hems just below knee • Textiles strictly controlled • Silk needed to make parachutes = ban on using them for hosiery and clothing • Nylon introduced by Du Pont in America in 1939 o Not yet widely available so offered stockings in rayon and cotton and wool o Women took advantage of wearing ankle socks in summer o Stained their legs and drew a mock back seam on back of calf o Stocking shortage increased popularity of trousers • In attempt to counteract the utility lines – dress fabrics made in bright colours o Printed and woven in repeat patterns kept small to avoid wastage when cutting • Government campaign “Make-do and Mend” remake clothing and update them instead of throwing out • 1940 in USA isolation from Paris lead to explore domestic talent o Mainbocher – firstAmerican designer to run successful house in Paris was back in NYC o two new talents appeared: Norman Norell and Claire McCardell – both women who worked with Hattie Carnedie (best ready wear designer) o throughout war years Norell showed simple sophisticated designs  1942 sequined evening sheaths o 1942 American War Production Board imposed limits on the use of certain textiles mostly silk and wool – McCardell turned to cotton using denim, seersucker, jersey to produce a range of attractive easy to wear designs  many became classics  wrap around “popover” dress of 1942 • the cut of men’s suits, width of women’s skirts, height of heels, colour of shoe leather etc in America – were not as stringent as those in effect in Britain o they did not last so long o restrictions came to end in US in 1946 but in 1948 in Britain • By end of war british andAmerican designers had much sharper internatonal profile • Significant developments in ready to wear clothing • Mass market manufactures improved their skills • After liberation, paris couturiers abandoned the brazen axtravagence of the years of occupation and returned to a simpler look • French needed to win back oversea buyers • 1945 push to revive couture industry – French artists collaborated with designers to produce the Theatre de la Mode, exhibition of wire-frame mini mannequins dresses in couture clothing o same copies of spring/summer collections of that year o used to publicize French fashion as it traveled to London, Barcelona, Stockholm, Copenhagen andAmerica • during postwar years Balmain, Balenciaga, Dior were to emerge as most eminent Parisian designers • 1947 paris was back head of the fashion world – when newly independent designer showed his first collection, the Corolle line o nicknamed the New Look o exaggeration of the late 30s and Occupation styles yet very antithesis of the clothing produced in both UK and US during war o soft rounded shoulders emphasized breasts o waists heavily corseted o hips padded o skirts – and herein lay the scandal- were billowing reaching almost the ankle o New Look lead for prosperous hopes for new future while others saw it waste of time and fabric o Dominated design of women’s clothes till 1954 1950s • Throughout 1950’s women wanted to appear mature, elegant and sophisticated • High fashion remained formal • Tailored suits, twin sets and shirtwaister dresses were worn during the day • Cocktail dresses and immaculately constructed full length gowns for evening • Perfect grooming essential o Hair in a soft waved pageboy or had regular perms o Chignons and French pleats popular o Makeup heavy: pale base, rouge cheekbones, eyebrows finely arched, eyes with dark eyeliner coloured eyeshadow and mascara, red lips • Basic fashion silhouette remained the same throughout the early 50s – period of intense fashion activity – with fashion designers creating new collections twice a year • As decade progressed clothing = less structured and straighter In cut o Subtly taking place in Diors collections which included H-line and A-Line and Y-Line • 1954 Chanel reopened her house and introduced relaxed wearable suits and dresses with hemlines reaching just below knee • Balenciaga rebelled against the New Look, showing tunic tops over long straight skirts and soft tailored suits with stand away collars and ¾ length sleeves o 1957 introduced chemise or sac dresses – which would become a dominant look in 60s • in America Norell, James Galanos, Pauline Triere, Valentina andAnne Klein branched out into ready-to-wear o Claire McCardell continued with her denim and cotton seersucker wrap over dresses and dirndl skirts – introduced jersey pedal pushers with matching tops so short they bared midriff • America excelled in bathingsuits especially
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