GEO 106 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 part 1

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29 Nov 2020
Department
Course
Lecture 2 Pt1 - perceptions, mental
images & mental maps
human - environment frameworks
Joseph Sonnenfeld
J Douglas Porteous
Sonnenfeld’s Environments/ env → affect our everyday lives
Geographical: sum total of world, known & unknown
Operational: world that impinges on you, knowingly or unknowingly
Constraints or facilitates what we can do
NOTE: operational & geographical worlds are same for all of us
Perceptual: world of which you are aware but may not interact with
Aware of many more things in the world than you actually interact with in
everyday life
Behavioural: world with which you directly interact
Higher level socio-economic groups would have larger behavioural and
perceptual environments.
Can experience and travel more places
Lower level socio-economic groups would have smaller behavioural and
perceptual environments.
Bc of knowledge of outside world is limited by economic resources
& it is DIFFERENT than having access to internet
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PORTEOUS
SOCIAL
SPACES
Type of
Space
interaction
proxemic
distances
knowledge
of space
source of
knowledge of
space
Home Base
Familial
Space
(core of home
base)
continuous
daily
intimate
high
first hand
experience
Neighbourhoo
d Space
(periphery of
home base)
intermittent
daily/weekly
personal
high
primarily first
hand,
but also
second-hand
Home Range
Economic
Space
(highly
frequented
part of home
range)
continuous
(e.g. work)
or
intermittent
(e.g.
shopping)
daily/weekly
personal
business
fairly high,
but
decreasing
from home
and work
-selective
varies widely
between first &
second-hand,
but is more
second- hand
than in
neighbourhood
space
Urban Space
(less
frequented
part of home
range)
intermittent
business
public
very
selective
and limited
primarily
second-hand,
with selective
first-hand
interpretations
Global
Range
World Space
infrequent
business
usually
very limited
almost
exclusively
second-hand
Adaptive Environments
Adaptive environments refer to how proxemic features affect the activities of
people in an environment
Diff env are used by diff people in different ways
That is, how fixed, semi-fixed and informal features (the intimate, personal,
business and public distance) help or hinder people’s use of environments.
For example, streets, curbs, and sidewalks are all shared fixed features. People
cooperate in order not to collide a learned rule of the place.
But for panhandling, the features and rules are used differently…
Concealed locations are safe but not lucrative.
Sidewalk and ambulatory exposures are highly visible but irritate
pedestrians and do not generate income.
Over 75% of panhandlers preferred wall side locations and made more
money.
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Similarly, fixed architectural and design features, such as room layouts coupled
with learned context, dictate what furniture goes where in houses and
apartments.
A study in Victoria, B.C. showed that about two thirds of apartments dwellers in
one building had the same arrangement of furniture. Studies of office building
show that almost all workers prefer to have window access.
Check out your professors’ offices – desks dictate business distance.
What are these office layouts telling you?
Looks comfortable/welcoming
Check out your friends’ homes – couches and furniture against walls?
Why? Maybe to divide places
Adaptive Environments Con’t
Manipulation of proxemic features through urban and interior design is done to
make spaces more human friendly.
One notable study (Trites, et al 1970) explored different hospital floor layouts.
The hospital was built with three wings, each with different floor plans
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