GEO 106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Scarborough Bluffs, Urban Air, Conurbation

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29 Nov 2020
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Lecture 8 - Part 1: Percentage of Population Living in Urban Settlements (2009)
Urbanization
uUrbanization is a complex process in which a country's population centres tend to
become larger, more specialized and more interdependent over time
uIt arises from interacting economic, social, technological, demographic, political and
environmental changes
Urbanization Trends (UN Report 2014)
uFastest population growth is in urban areas
uThe urban population of the world has grown rapidly from 746 million in 1950 to 3.9
billion in 2014
u54 % of the world’s population
uProjections show that urbanization combined with the overall growth of the world’s
population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close
to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa
uRural to urban migration
Bigger Cities are not always better…
uRichard Florida (2017) “The Myth that Urbanization Means Prosperity”, The Atlantic.
December 16.
uA false expectation that urbanization is always associated with prosperity
uGood deal of urbanization today comes from massive migrations of people escaping
wars, civil conflicts, or natural disasters, rather than from purely economic forces like
increased demand for labor
uThe notion that bigger cities are necessarily better (i.e. megacities) tends to be true in
more-advanced nations, where innovative knowledge economies benefit from density
and clustering
uIt is not the case in the developing and rapidly urbanizing world, where having a broad
range of smaller and medium-size cities adds more to economic growth
uBased on an analysis of “urban-productivity ratios” – city size and economic growth
uUrbanization in Canada
1. uMore than 80% of Canada’s population lives in cities, towns and suburbs
2. uCanada's largest cities are expanding fastest on the fringes in spite of government
efforts to contain growth and encourage density
3. uOverall move toward urbanization continues nationwide, but with faster growth in the
suburbs
4. uSome cities, including Toronto and Vancouver, have also seen big increases in the
number of people living in the downtown core
5. u45% of Canada’s population live in 6 cities:
6. uToronto, Montreal, Vancouver (TMV)
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7. uOttawa, Edmonton, Calgary
Urbanization in Canada/Urban Hierarchy in Canada - The Establishment and Growth of
Cities
uTransportation networks
uThe physical environment
uRural-urban symbiotic relationship
uSuburbanization and “bedroom communities
uThree Zones of Toronto
1. City core
2. Inner Suburbs (1998 Amalgamation)
3. Outer Suburbs
Urban Sprawl
The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban
centre
uThe physical spread of development at a rate greater than the rate of population growth
uGreater per capita land consumption
uEnvironmentally harmful and economically inefficient
uDriven by the desire for more space, lower density living, cleaner air, more green
space, decentralized employment opportunities
uAutomobiles and highways, telecommunications
What’s wrong with sprawl?
Transportation (automobile-oriented)
Pollution (Auto emissions, run-off)
Health (physical inactivity and psychological stress)
Loss of farmland, habitats, ecosystems
Local tax dollars (spent on infrastructure, taxpayers subsidize new development)
GTA Carbon Footprint per capita (2011)
Population Density vs. Carbon Emissions from Transportation
Creating Livable Cities
uPlanning: Official Plans at overlapping scales
uNeighbourhood
uCity
uRegional
uZoning is a key tool
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Zoning Bi-Laws
uSingle use or mixed use
uEncouraging more mixed development
uTries to maintain the existing “character” of neighbourhoods
uPrevents the juxtaposition of incompatible land uses
uGreen space is a requirement
uPersonal property rights issues vs. the collective good
uNIMBY: Not In My Backyard syndrome
Intensification of Development
uBuild Up, Not Out
uMixed land uses
uMore high rises
uSubdividing plots of land
The Garden City Movement
uA method of urban planning initiated by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom
in 1898
uGarden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by
"greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture
The Garden City Movement
uOver 30 Garden Cities were eventually developed in England, starting with Letchworth
in 1903 and Welwyn in1920
uComplete urban economies on municipally owned land
uThe Lands of the Garden Cities were leased out for industry, orchards, offices, and
shops, in addition to being used for owner-occupied cottages, limited equity housing
cooperatives, and rentals
The Garden City Don Mills: Canada's First Planned Community
Key Design Principles of Don Mills:
Perry’s Neighbourhood Unit
interconnected open space system
elementary school within each unit
mix of housing types and lot sizes; high-rise in centre transitioning to low-rise
shopping districts in periphery
u0% area to recreation and open space
fit to topography
hierarchy of streets, to separate cars and people, no through streets
jobs - housing balance
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