GEO 106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Dependency Theory, Human Capital, Punjab, India

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29 Nov 2020
Lecture 9 - Immigration and Everyday Life in Canadian Cities
Variation in Population Growth Rates
•Dimensions of Migration
Definition: the movement of people from one place to another
Immigration: People coming to a country or region
Emigration: People leaving a country or region
Temporary (in stages or “steps”)
Voluntary: by choice, but most often a “constrained” choice
Forced: not by choice (physically moved, or compelled to leave), includes refugees and
Internal: within a country (voluntarily, or displaced)
International: between countries
Global Migration Flows: Dependency Theory
•Unequal levels of development among nations force the dependence of the ‘less developed’
countries (e.g., agricultural countries) on the ‘developed’ nations (e.g., industrialised western
Highly skilled and unskilled individuals emigrate from the ‘less developed’ South
(“periphery”) to the ‘developed’ North (“core”)
•This structural (macro level) inequality stimulated the most talented and productive workers
from the south to immigrate to the technologically advanced societies of the north, creating a
“Brain Drain” (Glaser,1978)
•Types of Labour Migrants
Temporary Labour Migrants:
•Guest workers/oversea contract workers: Employed for a limited period of time and send
money home (remittances)
Permanent Highly Skilled and Business Migrants:
•Qualified people with human capital who can adjust and adapt to the labour market
•Global Voluntary Migration
•What do you need to emigrate?
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•Information: Employment (in your sector), housing opportunities, the dominant culture, the
presence of your ethnic community (institutional completeness)
•Economic connections: Employment
•Social connections: family, friends, distant relatives, relatives of friends, colleagues
Documented Migrants
Undocumented or Irregular/Illegal Migrants
•people who enter the state without the necessary documentation in search of employment
•Forced Migrants
•Signatories to the 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the State of Refugees cannot
return migrants to a country where they may be persecuted based on their race, religion,
nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion
Asylum Seekers:
•People in search of protection and do not fit the 1951 Convention à Personal persecution?
Economic and political?
•Refugee Sending Countries
United Nations High Commission on Refugees, 2009
Environmental Refugees
•An environmental refugee is a person displaced owing to environmental causes, notably
land loss and degradation, and natural disaster.
Source Publication: Glossary of Environment Statistics, Studies in Methods, Series F, No. 67,
United Nations, New York, 1997.
•“Natural” disasters increasing in frequency and intensity
•Overuse of land for agriculture
•Inappropriate use of resources, and pollution
•Climate change
International Immigration to Canada 1860-2006
•Canada Needs Immigrants
-Population Pyramids for Canada Overtime
Immigration Levels
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•New report calls for raising Canada’s immigration rate
•Raising admissions to 415,000 by 2030 would off-set aging population and spur economy,
Conference Board of Canada says
•May 15, 2018 by Stephen Smith
•In November 2017, Canada’s federal government announced a new multi-year immigration
levels plan that will see admissions ramp up to 340,000 across all immigration programs by
•The admissions target for 2018 is set at 310,000.
•Who are Immigrants?
A person who is not born in Canada.
§First Generation: Came to Canada as an adult or as a child (above the age of 2)
§1.5 Generation: Came to Canada below the age of 2
§Second Generation: Born in Canada with a First Generation parent
Immigration Policy: Historical Highlights
1800 -1950s: State Recruited Immigration
All white policy, mostly British
In mid- to late- 1800s:
Chinese immigrants from the U.S.
Immigrants from the State of Punjab, India
African Americans
Early 1960s : Refugees arrived under Geneva Convention
Mostly white, but diverse religious and linguistic groups
1967: the government amends immigration policy and introduces the point system for the
selection of skilled workers and business immigrants
Visible minorities
Three Historical Phases in Canadian Immigration
•Phase 1: 1850-1962
•Phase 2: 1962-1989
•Phase 3: 1989-Present
•Canada’s “Imagined” Future (for each Historical Phase)
Imagined Future
•Factors shaping imagined future
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