GEO 106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: List Of Neighbourhoods In Toronto, Ryerson University, Social Stratification

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3 Dec 2020
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Lecture 10 - EVERYDAY LIVES IN IMMIGRANT NEIGHBOURHOODS
Where would you like to live?
•Downtown (old City of Toronto)
•The Inner Suburbs
•The Outer Suburbs
•Where “the action” is
•A quiet neighbourhood
•Near people “like you”, however that is defined
•Close to something
Neighbourhood Types
-Ethnic based e.g. Little Italy, Chinatown
-Lifestyle based e.g. Yuppies, “Yonge &Eligibles”
-Built form based e.g. suburbs, Waterfront Condos
-Historical based Yorkville, Weston, The Annex
-Planners like to create neighbourhoods where they perhaps once existed. (historical)
- BIAs (Business Improvement Areas) like to invent them, whether they existed or not.
(commercial/retail/lifestyle)
Moving 2 Canada website
- Toronto’s Neighbourhoods: Where’s the best place to live?
- Toronto Social Atlas 2016 Maps
- https://www.toronto.ca/city-government/data-research-maps/neighbourhoods-
communities/toronto-social-atlas/2016-maps/
-
Where people live: Why does it matter?
It matters because where people live is an OUTCOME for various ECONOMIC, SOCIAL,
CULTURAL AND POLITICAL factors:
(1)How did they migrate to Canada? Did any one help them, e.g., immigration agency, family
members?
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(2)What kind of housing is available and where?
(3)What is their economic situation?
(4)What is the attitude of the receiving society toward this PARTICULAR GROUP of
newcomers?
Review of some concepts underlying Residential Segregation
•‘Race’
•Ethnicity
•Identity
•Ethnic Identity
•Racialisation
Race, Ethnicity and Racialisation
- Ideas about ‘Race’ and ‘Ethnicity’ are among the most powerful sources of human
identity: “who am I”…
- Although debatable, these categories are often taken for granted
- These notions are in fact, social constructs, products of specific historical and
geographical forces, rather than biologically given ideas
‘Race’
- The term “Race” came to English language from French and Italian roots in the 18th
Century
- Defining people by “race” served the interests of mercantile and industrial capitalism,
particularly in Britain and in the British colonies
- This process of “othering” was used to legitimize the exploitation of people and
associated colonization throughout the World
- Over time, it spread to Australia, Canada and other white-settler colonies abroad
- White’/’Black’/’Chinese’/’South Asian’
Ethnicity
- Greek Term
- ‘Ethno’ means distinct people
- Individual and Group: A way in which individuals define their personal identity and
a type of social stratification that emerges when people form groups based on
their real or perceived origins, and/or ‘culture’
- For example, Canadians of Irish origin
Identity
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Definition of Identity: The elements that make up the view that people take of
themselves (Knox and Pinch 2000)
“Who am I”: sensibilities developed around the axes of ‘race’, gender, economic and
social class, political view, religious belief and religiosity, sexual orientation, ability….
IDENTITY IS FLUID (ESPECIALLY ETHNIC IDENTITY)
PRIMORDIAL (based on nation, language, origin, etc. seen as fixed once constructed?)
INSTITUTIONAL (externally imposed by institutional bodies e.g., Statistics Canada)
SITUATIONAL (In cultural studies “identity” is seen as the unstable product of discourse)
Ethnic Identity
Ethnic identity is a socio-psychological phenomenon that is derived from
membership to an ethnic group (Isajiw 1990)
According to Heibert (2000), the development of an ethnic group may depend on:
•Shared historical memory (e.g., colonization)
•Racialisation
•External identification (e.g., “boat people”)
•Internalization of externally assigned identities (e.g., “South Asian”, “Black”)
Racialisation
‘Racialisation' is very helpful in understanding how the idea of ‘race' impacts us differentially
It is the ideological and systemic processes by which people are designated as being of
a particular "race"
Racial categories are "constructed“ by:
- media coverage
- political action
- production of stereotypes
Racialisation
- Based on a racialised categorization, people are subjected to differential and/or unequal
treatment
- While white people are also racialized, they are often rendered invisible or normative
- The category “Visible Minority” raises the question “visible to whom?
- Ethnic Residential Segregation
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