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Lecture 3

GEO 605 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Redpoll, Forb, Arctic Wolf


Department
Geography
Course Code
GEO 605
Professor
David Atkinson
Lecture
3

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Week 2 &3: Jan19, 22, 26, 29
The Physical Geography of The Canadian Arctic
Arctic Climate
Land of the Midnight Sun
The Sun shines at midnight during the summer above the Arctic Circle
66.5 degree N Lattitude
@70 degree N: Sun Sets in November and doesn’t come back until Mid
January
Example: Resolute weather [-32 degree] sun doesn’t come back yet,
so it’s extremely cold
Extremely Cold Temperatures
A lot less solar radiation ( even with 24 hours of sunlight in the summer)
On Average only 2 months of the year (July and August) have average
daily temperatures above freezing (0 degree Celsius)
In Toronto ( 2 and 1/2 months are below freezing (0 degree Celsius)
Lower angle, wide space, so it takes a lot of time to warm things up, even
with 24 hours of sunlight per day)
In Orangeville, you have 2 months that are below freezing ( 0 degree
Celsius)
Very Little Precipitation [ Arctic is a desert]
Less than 200mm (Toronto gets about 900mm)
Most of which is snow
Air is dry, little evaporation because everything is frozen and cover up
with snow
Snow doesn’t melt and will distribute by the wind
Very Windy
Extremely windy [During Summer]
Pressure differentiation
Warm Land, Cold ocean
Electromagnetic Radiation (EM): varies with wavelength/ frequency producing
different properties of energy- The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Absorption
Absorb solar radiation and release infrared light (Heat energy) back to
atmosphere
Atmosphere did the same thing (they didn’t make the heat, they tract Heat
within it)
Atmospheric Structure
Layers (From surface) due to

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Density (Pressure)
Radiation Environment
Temperature
Absorption of Terrestrial Radiation
Water Vapor: Is an excellent absorber of terrestrial radiation in wavelengths
less than 7 µm
Attract Heats
Balance very well
Self- regulate
Carbon Dioxide: Is an excellent absorber of terrestrial radiation in
wavelengths longer than 12µm
Methane: is an excellent absorber of terrestrial radiation in wavelength near
7 µm
October is fallen because the leaves is fallen from the tree
CO2 Now
October leaves fallen; release CO2
As of December 2014, 398.78 CO2

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It’s continuing to increase
Human Activities have changed the composition of the atmosphere since
the pre-industial era
Carbon Dioxide:
Caused by human
Nitrous Oxide:
Fertilization
Methane: All this refer as green house effect
Factory Faming
Sulfur:
Greenhouse Effect: The absorption of terrestrial radiation by the gases in the
Earth’s atmosphere is sometimes called the greenhouse effect
The walls and sides of the greenhouse keep the cooler outside air from mixing with
the warmer air inside the greenhouse.
Solar radiation easily passes through the glass in the greenhouse.
Terrestrial radiation is absorbed by the glass and the energy stays inside the
greenhouse
Solar radiation is absorbed and stored as internal energy inside the green house
increasing the temperature
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