GEO 702 Lecture 4: Lec 4

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7 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 4
Water quality – example of how the decision making frame can work
Water scarcity – decision making framework; dealing with uncertainty
Canadian commodities
oCod fisheries late 1500s – represent the food source; export to Caribbean from
Newfoundland; switch for sugar cane; free good; free food, free labor, free
transportation
oFur trade – French Canada in trade with first nations people; taking advantage of
growing rich, middle class;
oForestry – tinder; lumber
oFarming – 1800s; prairies; export agriculture
oMinerals – gold, silver etc
oOil and gas
oExport based; minimum cost on producing; price taker
o1900s – oil and gas, farming, fisheries, minerals
oAfter 1900s - more oil and gas
o2000s – oil and gas
After world war 2, Canada decided to connect more closely to US; trade; bring down tariffs,
subsidies, protection
Political, economic and geographical constraints to effective environmental management
R. Alex Clapp (1998)
oClapp’s resource cycle – based on renewable sources (can’t even manage renewable
resources)
Stage 1 – exploration, discovery, initial production and boom period
Stage 2 – increasing capitalization, investment and profitability
Stage 3 – resource depletion and increased allocation of scarce resources; or
falling world prices for primary raw resource products because of substitution or
competition from other global producers; both resulting in decreasing resource-
related employment and investment
oDynamics of sustainable development
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o
Case Study 3 – The death of the East Coast cod fishery
Don’t like breeding in cavity
1497 – John Cabot cruises the NFLD coast and finds cod in abundance; cod & salt cod market
oThe smaller scale we are – the less we can screw up
oInshore fishery
Small boats
Short roots
Out for overnight or a day
Small capacity
Small amount of fishery
Local; made up of local knowledge; family, community based
Isolated communities along the coast line in Newfoundland; basis of economy in
Newfoundland
Problem: seasonal for all resource based activities
1947 – beginning to inshore fisheries
Relatively sustainable – small scale; can’t do a lot of damage; not much profit;
capitalist – not enough capital
1700s – NFLD cod fishing is increasingly controlled by resident fishers
1950s – post-WWII economic expansion; fish sticks, cheap oil and suburbia
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oBefore WWII – major resource is coal
oMen back from war, falling birth rate, women in factories; encourage women go back to
home; start of gender equality
oAbundance of cheap oil, manufacturing capacity
oManufacturing of kitchen electronics, creation of suburbs, car manufacturing, public
transportation
oOil and gas industry – bought up public transportation; take off the rails; build roads;
make up of American dream (to live in suburbs)
oRadar, sonar, hydrogen bomb
oFish sticks – cod industry; TV dinner; processed and put in oven;
oOffshore fishery
Fishing technologies (move inshore fishery to offshore fishery)
oHandling (inshore) – a line, weight and hook is baited with squid or haddock; old, but
still common inshore method does least damage to the catch
Small boat
oLonglining (inshore) – a long line with bated hooks is set on the bottom for a few hours,
then retrieved
Larger boat
More capacity
Overnight
Sold at the port; fresh fish
oGillnetting (inshore) – a net fence set using weight and floats; cod’s head fits through,
but not its body, and its gills stop it from backing out
Out for a day or over a day
Have to be there; pay attention to what is there
Pay attention to higher predators
oCod trap (inshore) – a net fence fish from the shallows to a net box in deeper water;
after entering, the cod circle and can’t seem to find the “door”
Local knowledge
Shallow water
Pay attention to higher predators
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