GEO 702 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Iclei, Degrowth, Deep Ecology

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7 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 2
Ecological Challenge
1. Market says from an ecological point of view – prove the complex relationship of cause and
effect (the smoking gun)
2. 1960s most funded cooperation - Health Canada
3. Antibiotics
4. Famine – in past, lack of food; now, inequality
5. R&D in pharmaceutical companies are not funded; only funded in market
6. Private industries are responding to the rules of capitalism
7. Very little autonomy in terms of managing time
GPI Works
GDP – only economic measure; no relationship between GDP level and access to
health/education/opportunities/national health/well living; does not relate to all societies; does
not value the environmental factors; do not measure ecology; does not reflect the entire picture
as far as our global ecological system is concerned; does not tell equality
GPI (ecological measure) – increases in happiness; increases in health; decreases in
unemployment
Ecological footprint analysis – indicates resources that we consume in terms of materials from
forest and the amount of waste produced (garbage and CO2 etc); take footprint over time and
determine carrying capacity
Net national product - what you have leftover in terms of the natural resources that are
consumed over time ***** important
Tasks of GPI
oTo define and measure ‘consumption’ in a way that provides a better approximation of
actual well-being than the simple measure of marketed goods and services that appears
in the national accounts
Account for all of the social impact that GDP does not take into account
oTo account for the sustainability of consumption by incorporating measures of changes
in the value of capital stocks
What does GPI (locally based) measure?
oTypes of capital
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Built capital
infrastructures; also a form of subsidies to the industries
Alaska highway – support ore industry, mining industry
Cost of building, maintenance
Financial capital
Natural capital
Human capital
Skills
Social capital
Institutions (education)
oDefensive expenditures
Always negative
Nothing to do with defend the country
Expose drop of social well being
oDepletion of non-renewable natural resources
Unsustainable
The more you rely the further down your GPI goes; might balance when GDP
grows, but at same time it overrides
oTime accounting
Understand what is important for people and policy needed to support that
activity
See the gaps in the supports needed
Social well-being, how people spend their time and etc
oCosts of large-scale environmental degradation
Huge cost of climate change in 10-20 years
If develop now, can be a push to develop new technologies
How are these measured?
oEconomic accounting
oUse of surrogates
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