So far, looked at several concepts dealing with human behavior towards the built ( or urban)
These concepts are also used by urban designers to explore how design impacts humans and how
humans impact the design of spaces.
All of this follows from the notion that we can design urban spaces- neighborhoods or even
compete cities – to achieve certain societal goals.
The earliest cities occurred first in Mesopotamia, part of the Fertile Crescent and the area between
the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now Iraq, and were associated with the Sumerian culture.
But there is considerable debate about whether the earliest of these “cities” were little more than
Dating what is a city before 5000 years ago is fraught with problems.
Early cities- Sumer
Credit for being the first cities usually goes to the Sumerian locations of Uruk, Ur ,and Eridu, all of
which were at one point located on the banks of the Euphrates River.
All of these cities were first and fore m=most religious centres.
Nippur was a large and important religious city by about 5000 years ago and shows one of the first
No sense of place
Ancient cities, even though they have enormous historical signeificance, ossasionally become
victims of circumstance.
WW2 saw the destruction of many ancient and medieval sites in Europe and the Middle east. The
2003 incasion of Iraq saw equally destructive behavior by coalition forces. At the siete of acncient
Babylon areas were leveled to make helipads. As well as
Urban design movements.
Urban design other than haphazardly by the circumstance of history, has taken place mostly in
response to dissters the perceived pathogenies of the city. Often city design followed grand design with monumental architecture and street layouts that did
little to alleviate the problems facing the urban poor.
Architects such as Sir Christopher