Class Notes (807,915)
Canada (492,915)
Geography (1,032)
GEO 131 (25)


12 Pages
Unlock Document

Ryerson University
GEO 131
David Atkinson

Chapter 1Ecosystems and Humansenvironmental scienceAn interdisciplinary branch of science that investigates questions related to the human population resources and damages caused by pollution and disturbanceecologyThe study of the relationships between organisms and their environmentgeographyThe study of the features of the surface of the Earth including topography landforms soil climate and vegetation as well as the intersections of these with the economic interests of humansenvironmentalistAnyone with a significant involvement with environmental issues usually in an advocacy senseindividual organismA genetically and physically discrete living entitypopulationIn ecology this refers to individuals of the same species that occur together in time and spacecommunityin ecology this refers to populations of various species that are cooccurring at the same time and placelandscapeThe spatial integration of ecological communities over a large terrestrial areaseascapeA spatial integration of ecological communities over a large marine areabiosphereall life on earth plus their ecosystems and environmentsspeciesAn aggregation of individuals and populations that can potentially interbreed and produce fertile offspring and is reproductively isolated from other such groupsecosystemA general term used to describe one or more communities that are interacting with their environment as a defined unit Ecosystems range from small units occurring in microhabitats to larger units such as landscapes and seascapes and even the biosphereecosystem approachA holistic interpretation of the natural world that considers the weblike interconnections among the many components of ecosystemsenvironmental stressorAn environmental factor that constrains the development and productivity of organisms or ecosystemsdisturbancean episode of destruction of some part of a community or ecosystemsuccessionA process of communitylevel recovery following disturbancecollective propertiesthis term is used in reference to the summation of the parts of a systememergent propertiesthis term is used in reference to synergetic properties that are greater than the summation of the parts of a systemenvironmental valuesPerceptions of the worth of environmental components divided into two broad classes utilitarian and intrinsicenvironmental ethicsa way of fostering environmental literacy by incorporating environmental issues in educational curricula both in specialized classes as well as across the curriculum and also including the outofschool publicanthropocentric world viewThis considers humans as being more worthy than other species and uniquely disconnected from nature The importance and worth of everything is considered in terms of the implications for human welfarebiocentric world viewthis considers all species and individuals as having equal intrinsic value humans are not considered more important or worthy than any other speciesecocentric world viewThis incorporates the biocentric world view but also stresses the importance of interdependent ecological functions such as productivity and nutrient cycling In addition the connections among species within ecosystems are considered to be invaluablefrontier world viewThis asserts that humans have a right to exploit nature by consuming natural resources in boundless quantitiessustainability world viewThis acknowledges that humans must have access to vital resources but it asserts that the exploitation of resources should be governed by appropriate ecological aesthetic and moral values and should not deplete the necessary resourcesspaceship world viewThis focuses on sustaining only those resources needed by humans and their economy and it assumes that humans can exert a great degree of control over natural processes and can pilot spaceship Earthecological sustainabilityThis considers the human need for resources within an ecological context and includes the need to sustain all species and all components of Earths lifesupport systemnonrenewable resourceA resource present on Earth in finite quantities so as it is used its future stocks are diminished Examples are metals and fossil fuelsrenewable resourcesThese can regenerate after harvesting and potentially can be exploited forever Examples are fresh water trees agricultural plants and livestock and hunted animalssustainable developmentrefers to progress toward an economic system that uses natural resources in ways that do not deplete their stocks or compromise their availability to future generationseconomic growthA term that refers to an economy that is increasing in size over time usually due to increases in both population and per capita resource use
More Less

Related notes for GEO 131

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.