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Ryerson University
GEO 151
Steven Swales

Geo 151 nd rd Dates: October 22 /23 test Evaluate: Impression of your neighbourhood, and what is the relationship to the demographics (dynamic and developing, or stable and established, terrain vs landscape, activity, transit and characteristic relationship) Brownfield sites: development on top of already developed land (industrial) - Waterfront development was key with industrial growth (heavy transportation) o Once passed the transportation use (and industrial use is gone) it becomes as an attractive feature for living standards - Growth population usually extends people to suburbs versus adding depth to the city of Toronto - Now that green space is running low for development, the direction of change has moved to up - Strategies to add depth/growth: o Avenue strategy: identify areas with good avenues and develop up for higher density o Multiple Downtowns: encouraging depth (downtown north york) o Brown Field Sites: - Location of the market versus the location of the raw materials (i.e. steel) - Industry today is much more “footloose” (lighter/mobile material versus heavy for transportation)  water and railway not a necessity for transportation with lighter material - High tech industry will look for high intellectual staff as opposed to hard larbour workers (location) Week 1 Lecture - Population growth through migration (immigration and outmigration) and natural change (illness, disaster etc.) - Migrants tend to be youthful witch brings a natural growth in population - Industrial land is vacated (move from heavy material to light/footloose)  also was not as reliant on transportation routes of water and railways - 27% of all housing is occupied by one person living arrangements (condo developments) - Demographics: total numbers, household numbers, ethics - Higher density locations may attract more deviant behaviour - Baby boomers typically failed to reproduce themselves (families of 6 would not have 6 children each) - Themes of the baby boomers highly impact the market (housing market to retirement) - Harbourfront condominiums are right against the gardener and water which infringes on public space and scenery (city must accommodate the growth) - Buildings tend to have smaller frontages (built higher instead) for a more affordable space o Technology also affected the size of space that was built (pillars versus modern day concrete and steel) - Avenues in Toronto are underdeveloped o Key avenues (Spadina, Danforth) have good transportation and allow higher density growth - The female role enables them to use transit more frequently (shopping) o Also, if there is only one vehicle the male will usually have control or required the car - Lecture 3 Nuclear Family household seen as typical - Males versus females more likely to stay at home - Couples without children have grown significantly (parents are growing more and more likely to have less or no children) - Number of people living alone (single person household) is higher than couples with children (in households) - Families more likely to live in suburbs, whereas single person households would be downtown/along transit routes - Younger generation is less likely to have a need for automobiles due to the upbringing with public transit (less of a stagnant) o As well as differently cultures o Many parts of the world public transit is very efficient (cost and time) - Public transit  high density, extremely expensive to build o When public transit was owned by private companies, it made more sense to invest in highway development then smaller subway stops (60 km of highway was $1bill vs 1 subway stop of 6 km at $1 bil) - Rat runners around congestion zones (i.e. 407 toll road) o Flat entry fee - Green vehicles may avoid certain tolls or costs due to their pollution efficiency - H.O.V. lanes (high occupancy vehicles  carpool 2 or more people lanes) - Choropleth maps  shade maps o The intensity of the shade suggest different values (i.e. income) - Census traps - CMA’s  census metropolitan area (37 total in Canada) o Core population of at least 100 thousand o Includes areas around that are functionally linked through commuting o Commute and linkages allow outer areas to be included in the CMA (i.e. Etobicoke is included in Toronto) (in and out of city)  To be considered included in the CMA for the outer areas (Etobicoke) must have 25% of the employed labour force to commute to the city o 37 CMA’s in Canada o Toronto biggest CMA in Canada - Distance decay look up - Strong connection between homes of shoplifters and income - Cholera death (look up) association and space o More than 1 characteristics - Postal codes are used to generate various geographical analysis - Through loyalty cards or own master cards, businesses get your consistent business, your information, as well as your debt (who you are, what purchases you made and where) o Digitally explore shopping relationships Lecture 5 Diffusion and gravity models - Gravity models  a form of social physics (gravity is relative to the greater the mass the greater the pull) o Cluster in the gravity models make strong connection of variable to the surrounding people o People from outskirts will travel through possible intervening in order to get to the main attraction o Larger the place the more likely it will reduce the distance issue  i.e. shopping facilities (eaton center) - Disincentive nature of distance/friction of distance - Intervening opportunities - Gravity models - Diffusions o Contagious diffusion (i.e. like a cold, knowledge in class) o Innovation Diffusion (i.e. technology received in big places first, then diffused through the urban system)  However, as a testing strategy they may try an idea in a smaller location before going to the bigger places to diffuse down - Retail chain/Franchise Chain (i.e. Tim Hortons) o 4 or more stores in the same line of business and under the same management o Most store are independent stores - Range o How to identify where people come from o Forward saltation areas (first 3 digits of postal code)  Postal code is quicker than full address  Unique to your area (versus 25 queen street can be multiple locations)  Not as intrusive as address o Distance Decay  closer you are to a location, the more interaction (cluster)  Ones further away may be experiencing intervening opportunities o Anomaly’s/Outliers  non residential or industrial areas  Home postal code could be further away from a location, but work could be close (explain an outlier)  Underground path system is extremely dependent on people that a0re away from their home Next Lecture - GreaterTorontoHamiltonArea o A weakness for future growth is the transit system o Lack of availability for affordable housing - Range (continued) o Further away the less interaction o Range of a shopping mall is much larger then that of a convenience store - Francophone Yuppies: o Francophone: French-speaking o Yuppies: young professional adults (middle-high class) o Part of the census tracking (language, age group, occupation/income) o This CMA connects Ontario and Quebec o Connects political entities o Only 5 CMA’s have all three symbols (square, triangle, circle) o Target Marketing: i.e. through mail (specific dedicated areas), billboards (specific area)  Less cost  Not just who they are, but where they are - Desire Map/Spider Map - Connects areas to desired destinations o Illustrates the concept of change and mobility o The market has increased mobility o Service sector businesses must respond to that o i.e. Megaplaex’s  Instead of one little one in every neighbourhood, there is one massive one o Gravity principles dominate intervening opportunities  Largest destination - Changing Mobility - Private Sector- pursuing profit o If hospital, put in location for efficiency - Public Sector o Shoppers Drugmart provides medication and supplies for everyone - Externality: unintentional third party effects o I.e. living next door to a fire station, the house would hear the sirens every day, but would be the closest response in case of danger - Retail Strategies o Airport: people arrive hours before their flights, in an environment they cant leave, and are surrounded by retail shops (duty free, clothing stores etc) o Megaplexes are big within power centers: clusters of big box retails, Power centers not enclosed like a mall o Power Nodes: surrounding an intersection
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