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GEO 210
Hersch Jacobs

Geography of danger lecture 1  Most dangers in Canada is manmade, or natural disaster  Foundation caused the building to collapse of the building  Country with the highest death of falling out of bed (Hungary)  Fishing is the leading cause of death due to sports in United States  Australia highest spider death  Murder = Honduras  Ashma figi  Female suicide south Korean  Above countries with leading deaths are not obvious  30,000 people die from obesity  10,000 people get struck by lightning  Texting kills 6000 people annually  Hippos kills 2900 people annually  Airplanes kill 1200 people annually  Volcanos kill 845 annually  Autoerotic aphis  Shopping on black Friday kills 550 annually  450 people die falling out of bed in the states  Bathtubs kill 340 people annually  130 people are killed by dears  100 people die from icicles  Hotdogs kill 70 children annually  Chicago dougs hotdogs best hotdogs in the world, duck hotdogs  Tornados kill 60 people annually  Jellyfish, kill 40 people annually  Dogs kill 30 people annually in the United States  Many knock offs for Canada goose are dogs  Ants kill about 30 people annually  Largely American, high-school football kill 20  Vending machines kill 13 people annually  Roller coasters kill 6  Sharks kill 5  As a citizen of Canada will live a long life, not exposed to a lot of risk  Women live longer (born in Canada) life expectancy of 84 years  Male born in Canada, life expectancy of 78 Geo of danger lecture 2  As a Torontonian, as a child we passed through most dangers already  Life expectancy of men is lower, 84 for women, 78 for men  The is no reason why men do it live as long  To date life expectancy has been increasing over history for both sexes (1995-2007 biggest jump)  Book --> catch 22 o “I’m going to I’ve forever, or die in the attempt” Dunbar o He never wanted to have a good time o Face the reality of time, perspective and perception o For Dunbar feeing bored made him feel like he lived longer  Places of fear: natural places of fear Hypothesis: the greatest threat that we suffer are least obvious, least aware, less dramatic, continual, shuttle, we are most aware of dramatic events such as violence disease and environment  Memorable/shuttle events create more fear “spectacular events”  Fear are sedum objective  Biggest ceLos in the human body are the sperm and eggs  Mortality vs. serendipity  Fountain of youth  Florida place for lots of people to die  Throughout human history there has been men that went to war  Morbidity is injury that does not result in death  Morbidity quality of life o Who you are o What is your genetics o What are you doing o When are you doing it o Where you’re doing it Compound risk, risk associated with a combination of events, California is risked place in USA Geo of Danger o Graph posted on blackboard base on American data 2005 o Shows the average number of years lost due to something happening o Years of potential life lost o Generally human related o Un-intentially injuries, (accidents) is the highest life lost  Country with the highest suicides rates is Lithuania (42 per 100,000), Russia is ranked second o Only country that’s outside the former USSR is Finland o Due to the amount of sunlight or lack of, causing suicides in Finland  most dangerous jobs o 1 is fishing o Timber cutters o Mining machines o Railroad o Airplane pilots o Trash collector is marginally more dangerous than a coal miner  Fear is always part of our lives, we all have to cope with fear  The way we deal with fear  The perception of others is due to fear  Your ability to deal with fear associates your status in society (generally tend to be leaders)  The appearance of being fearless/ brave  Fear is pleasurable, fear is enjoyment, recreation, entertainment, exile rating  Adrenaline is facing fear, it what makes fear bare able, body’s ability to produce adrenaline  We like to be spectators through watching other people’s fear o Back then, this is a reason why horror genre was popular, the condition to be freighted  Many fears are Miss-guided  A lot of fear is built on personal perception  People are afraid of the “inner city” where African Americans and Latinos live for Canada Shepard and finch area  Mainly low income areas  Not necessarily greatest violence area or economic crime in general  Race and crime has no connection  People of color are most commonly targeted by people of color, most people prey on their own, crimes generally occur within their own racial community  We don’t understand risk  1980s some flavorings where causing over cancers  Food coloring is very limited and controlled within Canada  Textile dyes cause cancers, including hair dyes (4 types of hair dyes) Geo of danger lecture o Sam Lovington, comic from 50s (not important) Meaning of risks:  Science has progress to the point where we understand a tie of risk  We understand certain risks that weren’t found out before like contaminant  Some contaminants that hold different levels of risk  We are the most skeptical generation  Mistrust in the government and are governments  We know we will be lied to by industry and all levels of the government  Growth of social media and the advancement of communication causing more awareness, doesn’t have to pass through the same screening barrier  The academic world, when they are doing research, submit to journal, and editor would go to a panel distribute the paper, send that paper back for revision , review to print could be up to a year and a half  Advent of online journals can surpass this  Everything we consume is made up of chemicals  There’s a price to pay for modern technology  There are 3000 chemicals that we are exposé to that contain  There’s never a real agreement on opinions  Look at the people around you, and who’s funding  Funding can greatly affect studies  Humans don’t understand the business of probability  We know the most about tobacco  We understand the consequences of tobacco, but we don’t understand the link between tobacco and the consequences  For every 11 people who smoke 2 packs a day, only 1 will get cancer  We deal by doing risk assessment  Gamblers fallacy, flip a coin 5 heads, what an odds of it being heads again? 50%  People don’t deal with probability properly  There is no such thing has zero risk  There’s a belief “it can’t happen to me” people tend to believe that  It’s an excuse for people to do other things that they won’t normally do  We don’t understand the hierarchy of threats  The “most likely” causes of injury or death  With the advancement of medicine, the greatest threat of our lives is an accident, acid?  Overwhelming amount of men will get prostate cancer (very few will die) most will die with prostate cancer, die with but most won’t die OF prostate cancer  Einstein “god doesn’t play nice with the universe”  Recurrence interval “you may have a flood, you live igneous near a river that might flood, if you live in a house that was swept able to a 20 year flood, it would be a bigger flood but the probability would be lower  FOR FINAL, what is the odds of dealing a perfect ridge hand, 1/1580000000  The number of particles in the universe is __________ Geography of danger Diseases:  Cholera o Form of acute diarrhea o Caused by a bacterium called Vivrio cholera o Infection tends to be mild, with few symptoms o 1/20 has a severe case, suffer from horrible diarrhea and vomiting, leg cramp from dehydration o Worst instances of cholera, lose 10% of body weight in couple of hours o Children are most vulnerable o Little can be done for children, even with a physician o You can get cholera from drinking water, eating food, and epidemic cholera is usually from feces o One feces is fes o Feces affect by the cholera bacterium can spread very quickly o Selvage and water supply not treated properly o Last 200 years there has been 6 major outbreaks (pandemic) o 1 pandemic came from shellfish, contaminated sewage o Over crowed places caused lack of hygienic conditions o London became a city of despair o 1854 outbreak of cholera 600 people died in the community of Soho o There was no real understanding of the disease, no appreciation of the connection between health and hygiene o some people believe that the people that were buried from the Black Death caused the particular illness o most people believe that it was vapors coming out of the ground o John snow (his discovery in 1854, his understanding of cholera, has been regarded as the father of epidemiology) pattern of diseases, how diseases are caused and where they are from, the progress of diseases, they map diseases o He produced a map o In order to contain the disease, he had to identify the source o He mapped almost 500-600 cholera deaths o It showed where people were infected by cholera o Broad street well, was identified as the possible source of the pandemic o Alcohol when processed is a disinfectant o The source of the cholera was contaminated water from the broad street well o Snow was eventually able to convince authorities, to take action o London became the first city to have sewage system, the capacity to treat sewage o Cholera still effects Africa mainly, in various spots Geo Of danger Feb 4 Cholera:  People with type “O” blood is the most settable to cholera  Type “AB” blood, you are almost immune to cholera  Total number of death from cholera, is approximately 5000, 4600 of those cases are in Africa Cancer:  Poster to help someone, raise money for cancer treatment, through incentive like food, live music, and prizes (TVs, Winchester rifle)  Cancer is still the leading concern to most people  Canada has produced a cancer atlas of Canada  There is a cancer atlas of the United States (Picture)  Best way to deal with cancer is to avoid cancer o Map Cancer and show what the distribution is o The distribution of cancer, related to the causes of cancer o Cancer in the states more in the east half of the states o Why the difference between men and woman, and the distribution o Counties within the United States (Pics) o There has been changed in the geographical areas of cancer within those time periods o Those factors must be environmental, probably not a significant change in the genetics of those people living there o Biggest factors, are sex and race o Breast cancers, patterns have changed o Age o Environment seems to keep coming out o Childhood cancer in Britain, most childhood cancer under age of 16, are the result of industrial and environmental pollution (analyzed through maps of incidents) o The environment seemed to be a huge factor in the UK, 300 deaths each year as a result (Knox) o Knox suggested, a child born within a kilometer of a major emission o Breast cancer rate, connected to the environment o Great Lakes area has a pattern of breast cancer (contaminants) where we dispose to waste o Cancer Chart o Most men will die with prostate cancer o 3300 new diagnose cancer every week, o 1500 will die every week of cancer o Canada’s top 10 of death  Cancer o 43% of all new cancer cases, will be people over the age of 70 o For young people, the 2 leading causes of death ages 15-34 accidents and suicides o Cardio vascular disease 1995 o We have made a lot of advances in combating diseases o There are significant differences in different areas o What factors are most responsible for it (map of Canada) o Another major threat to Canadians Heart Attack and Stroke  The risk of Heart Attack is higher on Monday  The WHO (World Health Organization) it estimates, cardio vascular diseases is responsible for 17 million deaths, each year (that figure is applied to the world population)  The WHO believes that cardio vascular diseases as 10% of the number of healthy years lost, mainly regarding low to middle income countries  18% are contributable to cardio vascular disease  Cardio vascular disease, is a high concern of wealthy countries  Heart attack: the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart, is blocked  Stroke: caused by blockage of blood to the brain (blood cloths)  50 million people suffer a stroke, 1/3 of those people won’t about it, 1/3 find themselves permanently disabled, final 1/3 die  Smoking is a primary factor in cardio vascular disease, if you smoke there is a 200- 300 chance you will suffer a stroke  Obesity is another leading factor to stroke  Lack of physical activity  Physical inactivity and a healthy diet, is a major risk factor to cardio vascular disease  Psychological stress o Elizabeth Barnett o She found that race and geography are major factors in hearth disease, essentially men over the ages of 35 (1991-1995) o The population that where most as risk, African-Americans, and the most poorest areas of the United States o African-American men, where 26% more likely than white men to die of heart disease o Almost twice the Hispanic Population o 300% from the lowest to the highest o Not just race but income level o Not only are African-American are to die of cardio vascular disease but they will die at a younger age o 40% of men if African-American males will die of cardio vascular disease before the age of 65 o 21% of white males will die before the age of 65 o Southern diet, is not a diet to prolong life o Greatest likely hood in Canada, are in the Maritimes o Smoking, lowest level of activity, lots of risk factors in Maritimes o A resident of Newfoundland are 40% more likely to die than someone in British Columbia o Plaque is a problem Salt:  1950 japan recognized its salt consumption and managed to cut its stroke rate by 50%  Finland mandated a reduction of salt in food by 30% and reduce by 80%  Britain saw all salt was added by industry  Reduced their salt intake to 20-30% Geo of Danger Influenza:  Influenza--> Spanish flu  Stuck 1918-1919  Pandemic  Likely originated in China  First place after China, was Japan  Then it entered Europe (because a ship sailed into Brest)  Then to the United States (Boston Philadelphia)  Then Africa through Freetown  1918 described as the Spanish flu because a lot of Spaniards got sick and died at the same time  The disease spread rapidly, during World War 1  “a Strange form of epidemic has arrive in Madrid” first news about it was from Spain that was uncensored  8 million people became infected, and people just started to die  In Spain, the disease was not called the Spanish flu, the Spanish flu was called the nape soldier  Influenza is normally a very mild flu, that usually attacks the very young and the very old  Most flu are not a major risk to middle age people  The Spanish Flu was the opposite, this strain of flu targeted the ages of 21-29  It was different from other strains of flu o It was particularly, had a very high death rate associated with it o Most influenza death rate has less than 1% o Spanish flu has 2.5% o The death rate between the ages of 15-34 had a higher chance o People could be walking down the street and just randomly die o Ultimately, the disease spread around the planet, 1 billion people where affected with this pandemic o Half to quarter of the world’s population was infected with this flu o Up to that time, it affected the most people at the time o Most people died in a single year from the flu than the 4 years from the Black Death o 25 million people died from the Flu o Ultimately, the estimates put 50-100 million people died o India 17 million died, UK 200,000 died, USA 600,000, North America 28% died o The diseased arrived in Boston and spread to New York and Philadelphia o It follow the railway patterns around the country o In September 1918, 12000 people died in the United States, in the next month 190,000 people died, the highest death rate in the United States ever (Philadelphia about 17000/2000000) o President Woodrow Wilson suffered from the flu o There was not a great deal doctors could do, cleaning, bleeding, digitalis, morphine, enemas, aspirin, tobacco, iron tonics, they tried everything o It was illegal to spit, cough, and sneeze (NYC 500 fine) o Canada 2 million came down with the disease, 50,000 died from the Spanish flu o More people died in the Spanish flu, than World War 1 for Canada o Reached the trenches in 1918 o The disease entered Canada, through returning troops from the war o The Canadian Medical journal, Sudden weakness, chills, tongue dried, failure of repertory system, same general pattern of death, MOST TH DEATH OCCURED ON THE 10 day o It started like a cold o There was 1 antidote, playing bridge, before morning ¾ of the women died o People on the way to work died in hour o Some people died on the way to work o Blood guessed from your openings o The Spanish Flu, Just vanished o Killed more people than the war itself o In the United States, the impact of influenza, the average life span of an American dropped by 10 years o Disease from animals usually don’t affect humans but this one mutated and jumped to humans SARS:  Severe Acute Repertory Syndrome  First appeared in November 2002  In migrated from people in china in the province of Gong Dong  Coughing, shortness of breath, difficulty of breathing  So infected, people dealing with SARS, said, it was as bad as coming in contact with an infected person  Nothing was known about it at the beginning  The cause of the disease was unknown  Where it originated was controversial, Kwok-Yun the disease made the jump from the animal population to human, Civet Cat  Civet Cat was regarded as a delicacy  It was served throughout the province  The Chinese ordered the slaughtering of 10,000 Civet Cats  One of the problems with SARS was the disease was difficult to diagnose  Symptoms where very similar to other diseases  No known treatment  The disease spread around the world, by April 2003, 31,000 cases of SARS world wide  Largest number of cases was in China  Canada was the worst hit country outside of ASIA  Grace hospital was the epee center in Toronto  People didn’t understand how bad SARS was  Started from family members, to hospital workers, and people just visiting the hospital  Fear in Canada of Overreaction (travel advisory) divested for Toronto tourism  In 2003 Toronto was declared SARS free West Nile Virus:  Transmitted by a certain mosquito  Vector is the agent of the disease (the method of transmission)  The mosquito become infected, when they feed on birds with a high level of the disease in the blood  Reservoir of West Nile Virus is the blood of birds  Cattle, hamster, mice and dogs, anything that mosquito can bite  Humans get it from Mosquitos  It’s not pass from person to person  No evidence, must be taken from the bird of one animal and fused in  West Nile is a new disease  West Nile Virus appeared in 1937, it was the result as a mutation  West Nile started in Uganda, Africa  It took little time to reach North American, the first case was in New York City 1999  1999-2000 there were reports of 83 cases of human West Nile virus, 9 died, the death rate was 10%  The West Nile
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