Department of Geography
GEO 241: CARTOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE FALL 2012
LAB 3: EXPERIMENTING WITH CARTOGRAPHIC SYMBOLS
This lab is an opportunity to apply concepts of graphic logic and cartographic standards,
and experiment with symbolization using ArcMap. The submission for the lab is the
printed coloured map; there are no written answers needed. THE MAP IS DUE AT THE
END OF THE LAB PERIOD.
The purpose of the map is to promote recreational opportunities in Prince Edward County
in Eastern Ontario. The last census (2011) records the population of the county as 25,260
residents. Well known for its beautiful sand beaches on the shores of Lake Ontario, it has
more recently been a leader in culinary tourism in Ontario and a number of wineries have
grown up in the last few years. The map will show both types of attractions. The data have
been created for this lab from information on the Prince Edward County Official Tourism
Distinguishing qualitative data on a map by symbol properties
Distinguishing quantitative data on a map by symbol properties
Adhering to cartographic standards for symbols
Sizing cartographic components to reflect their importance
Creating appropriate map titles and legends
Setting relative paths for data layers
Changing the order of layers
Using the Symbology options for map features
Copy the folder labelled 241lab3F12 in LaskinTeaching on the Z: drive to your desktop.
Because you will be using the map you create for Lab 4, the first thing you need to do is to
make sure that all of the data layers will be accessible even if you use a different computer.
You need to set the paths of the data layers to your ArcMap document. Instead of storing a full path name with the drive, if you set the relative path then the layers
are attached to the ArcMap document only (as long as you keep everything in the same
In the Main menu, select CustomizeArcMap Options and check the box which says:
Make relative paths the default for all new ArcMap documents
CREATING A DATA VIEW
1. Adding ShapeFiles
Click on File along the Main menu, and then Add Data or click on the Add Data tool.
With the desktop selected, in the 241lab3F12 folder, add ALL of the .shp files to
the Data View by clicking on each one with the Shift key held down and Add.
Your Data View should list twelve geographic features as layers:
PEC conserv area (conservation areas)
PEC Information (visitor information centre)
PEC picnic (picnic sites)
PEC prov wildlife (government wildlife areas)
PEC provincial park
PEC represents Prince Edward County data.
You can name the Data View by clicking on View in the main menu and Data
Frame Properties, selecting the General tab and filling in an appropriate name.
Because one of the files has Ontario-level data, the map of Prince Edward County is very
Right-click on the PEC boundary layer in the Table of Contents and Zoom to
Layer to set a more appropriate scale.
2. Changing the Order of the Layers
Note that the layers are grouped by shape of feature and, within those shapes, they are
ordered alphabetically. You need to change the order of the layers so that all of the data can
be seen. Make sure List by Drawing Order is selected at the top of the Table of Contents window (first button on the left), then just click on the layer name and drag the layer to put
it in the desired order.
For this lab, there are a number of changes to make in the symbolization. You will need to
distinguish different area, line and point features and you will need to distinguish the
attributes of two layers: trails and places. In all cases, you need to remember what the
purpose of the map is and choose symbols accordingly in terms of emphasis (ordinal
differences) and cartographic standards.
3a. Symbolization to distinguish areal features
There are a number of area features to distinguish: the water, wildlife areas, provincial
parks and the county itself.
To change the symbolization, right click the layer name, and select Properties. Select the
Symbology tab and click on the symbol. Or click on the symbol underneath the layers
A Symbol Selector window appears in either case, indicating the properties of the
You can change the properties of the features to more appropriate symbols. Think
about whether there are any cartographic standards or colour associations.
3b. Symbolization to distinguish lines
Change the symbol for roads appropriately using the process in 3a.
3c. Symbolization to distinguish attributes of a line feature
Next, you are going to identify the different types of trails.
Open Attribute Table of the PEC trails layer to determine the possibilities.
WHAT LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT IS THE ATTRIBUTE OF TYPE? HOW
ARE YOU GOING TO DISTINGUISH THEM?
Right click on the layer, click on PropertiesSymbology tab, noting that the Feature is
Single Symbol. Click on the other possibilities in the Show window to reveal the mapping
techniques available. Chose Categories Unique Value technique to distinguish the type of
trails. Remember Lab 1 [Remember to choose the correct Value Field; Add All Values;
You may want to change the hue, shape and/or width of the lines by double
clicking and choosing different properties in the Symbol Selector window.
[Note that one trail follows one of the roads so you may need some adjustments to the road
or trail symbols once you display them.] 3d. Symbolization to distinguish attributes of a point feature
You are going to distinguish the places in Prince Edward County by their population size.
WHAT LEVEL OF MEASUREMENT IS THE ATTRIBUTE OF TYPE? HOW ARE
YOU GOING TO DISTINGUISH THEM?
Right-click on the layer PEC places and Open Attribute Table. There are no populations
given but there is an attribute of PPN_CODE with values of 2 and 3.
2 represents small population centres with populations of 1,000 to 29,999. In this case,
according to the 2011 census, Picton has a population of 4,487 and Wellington has a
population of 1,860. 3 represents rural communities (populations less than 1,000). Close
the Attribute Table.
To distinguish the places by population, go to the Symbology tab of the layer and
choose Quantities Graduated symbols. Scroll in the FieldsValue: and select
In this case, 2 has a higher value than 3. Right click on Symbol (above the actual
symbols) and choose Flip symbols so that the larger symbol represents the 2.
In the Label column in the Symbology window (this is what you are going to see in
the map legend), give the corresponding ranges a description which makes sense.
Apply to see what the changes look like on the map.
You may need to adjust Symbol Size. You may want to change the hue as well.
3e. Symbolization to distinguish point features
There are five different point features to distinguish with the Symbol Selector window:
brewery, conservation area (note this feature is designated as an "area" but at the scale of
the map it will be represented by a point symbol), information centre, picnic site and
winery. Remember the appropriate visual variables to use to distinguish qualitative
differences. Do any of the features have an associative hue or shape?
CREATING A LAYOUT
In this layout, you are going to display the map (Data View), and add
neatline inside the margins of the layout