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Canada (509,326)
Geography (1,064)
GEO 301 (26)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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GEO 301
Joseph Aversa

L8: The Geography of Retail Supply: Retail Structure and Change Dynamics of the Canadian Retail Environment - Canadian Retail Environment Reflects the Immense Diversity of : o Social classes o Incomes o Ethnicity o Lifestyle - Elements of the metropolitan retail landscape o arterial strips o neighbourhood shopping streets o suburban plazas o power centres o downtown shopping areas o revitalized boutique districts Evolution of the Canadian Urban Retail System - Retail landscape of urban Canada is the product of a series of complex structural changes: - Retailers locate in response to market conditions - If the population/income mix or market potential is appropriate, retail development will occur. The determinants of Retail Structure - Demographic Change – income, population - Entrepreneurial change – acquisition, competition, preferred areas, product mix, retail consolidation - Technological change – mobility, cyber-retailing - Consumer behavior change – lifestyle preferences, time-space patterns The Pre-World II Retail System - Low consumer mobility - Low car ownership - Many consumers shopped daily for food - Going downtown to shop was viewed as a normal activity - Nearby corner stores were a necessity - It was the Age of the Department Store – T. Eaton and Robert Simpson companies controlled 10.5 per cent of total retail sales in Canada in 1930 - Relatively low mobility in the pre-war city explains retail location patterns o Day-to-day shopping was carried out close to the home in corner stores and neighbourhood commercial strips o High order goods were typically purchased downtown Post World War II: The Shopping Centre Era - Began with the opening of Park Royal Shopping Centre in Vancouver in 1950 - The next forty years the retail economy was shaped by: o the planned shopping centre o the automobile o suburbanisation - By 2003 shopping centre sales accounted for approximately 60 per cent of non-automotive retail sales in the country and were responsible for almost all the growth in shopping goods activity since the post-war period. Shopping Centre Development in Canada Occurred in Four Stages: 1. 1950’s - consequent development strategy In this Era: - The shopping centre was constructed after the housing stock in a given area was in place and the details of the market were known - Most plazas were: o small o un-enclosed o automobile-oriented - Were developed independently to serve the convenience needs of the community During this early period: - Retail planning controls were in most cases non-existent and often a form of uncontrolled retail sprawl development resulted. - A major factor that led to these patterns was the reluctance of the major Canadian department store chains to move to the suburbs. o Both Eaton’s and Simpsons adopted a wait-and-see attitude and were content to remain securely located in the downtown cores of Canadian cities. 2. 1960’s - simultaneous shopping centre development In this Era: - both the centre and the housing stock were built at the same time - the shopping centre was viewed as the centre of the ‘planned’ community - in Canada, the first development to adopt this approach was Don Mills Plaza in Toronto (1959). - The philosophy of simultaneous development became accepted at all levels from the large regional complexes (e.g., Fairview Mall, Bramalea City Centre and Scarborough Town Centre in Toronto) to the neighbourhood plazas that form the centre of small residential communities. - During this period the shopping centre became an institution. - The shopping centre industry in Canada established both policies and procedures - A host of specialties emerged to deal with a variety of shopping centre concerns - design, law, leasing, marketing, landscaping, parking, tenant mix, energy conservation and lighting. - By the end of the 1960’s – the shopping centre industry in Canada was well established and a level of corporate control over the prime shopping centre locations in Canada had been assured - These developers are arguably the most important players in determining the spatial structure of the retail distribution system in Canada. Owner/Management Co. Headquarters Total # Centres/ Properties Total Gross Leasable Area (sq.ft.) Ivanhoe Cambridge Toronto 50 31,486,055 First Professional Toronto 132 29,420,465 RioCan Toronto 190 24,189,987 Cadillac Fairview Corp. Toronto 31 21,569,000 Oxford Properties Toronto 32 13,564,798 20 Vic Toronto 22 13,174,816 First Capital Realty Toronto 103 12,700,000 Crombie Properties Toronto 78 9,722,944 Trinity Development Stellarton, NS 33 9,300,000 Calloway REIT Calgary 56 8,302,376 Canadian REIT Toronto 24 5,695,428 Key notes These shopping centre systems that emerged from the 1960s were essentially homogeneous in nature. - One shopping centre at any one level of the hierarchy looked much the same as the next. - It had the same layout and design, it felt the same, and it offered the same range of goods, services and tenants in the same standardized environment. - This sameness was the product of the corporatisation of the shopping centre. o Beginning in the early l960s, a synergy developed between corporate, chain retailers and shopping centre developers that continues to the present. - Throughout North America, the planned shopping centre provided the principal vehicle for the entry of and ultimate dominance of the retail chain in the urban marketplace - By 1986, slightly more than half of all retail chains and department stores in Canada were located in shopping centres - 51.7 per cent or 17,795 outlets. - Certain types of retail chains were disproportionately shopping-centre oriented. - In terms of total sales, women’s clothing (91 per cent), luggage and leather goods (89 per cent), children’s clothing (87 per cent), jewellery stores (85 per cent) and shoe stores (83 per cent) were the retail activities that showed the greatest propensity for shopping centre locations. 3. 1970’s - ‘catalytic’ shopping centre development - The shopping centre was viewed as a growth pole that would stimulate future residential development - The shopping centre was viewed as a growth pole that would stimulate future residential development o Scarborough Town Centre and Mississauga Square One are prime examples of this trend in the Toronto region. - The 1960’s and 1970’s were also characterized by the commercial revitalization of central cores, as these areas became a prime focus for shopping centre development. o In Canada, the first attempt at a downtown shopping centre was in London, Ontario (Wellington Square, 1960) o By the end of the l970’s, most major cities in Canada had an enclosed shopping facility in the downtown core. o In most cases, these developments were joint ventures that involved the developer, a major department store (often Eaton’s) and an important financial institution. End of 1970’s - The end of the 1970s saw the market saturation of the suburban shopping centre in Canada. - As a Result – Developers
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