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GEO 802 (30)
Lecture 5

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GEO 802
Abednego Aryee

Lecture 5 – environmental impacts of tourism Condition of the city b4 tourism and after tourism – 1) lack of info of the pre tourism 2) lack of data of the impact caused by local residence , Effects in the landscape - Tourism was seen as clean and benign – - 1960 – began to question impact of tourism - All the chemicals used to agriculture, golf course (pesticide, insecticide … ) run off into the rivers or etc ( silent spring – dead organism cuz of the flow of chemicals into rivers etc – affecting wild life - Variable – resousces population tech – predicted there is going to be a collapse of ecosystem - over existence and consumption of resources - Prediction – in 2000 collapse, global warming ( it hasn’t happended due to tech improvements- genetically modified crops etc ) - 70% of airline travel – tourism related - Tourism contributes largely to air pollution – not air crafts alone, automobiles, coaches, cruise ships - 1990s – Sustainability – earth summit – they define sustainability as meeting the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs - Fuel – as part of UN frame way convention of climate change – design to decrease greenhouse gas levels at least to the 1990 level. CO2, SO2, NO2 (poor combustion of automobiles) - Also a need for bio diversity conservation – (conserve bio resources and the genes, ecosystem and species levels; o have 2 components – o In-situ conservation - protection of bio resources in the environment or in their natural habitat (eg. marine protected area, natural parks) o ex-situ – preservation of bio resources outside of their natural environment (eg. Zoo, aquarium ) SLIDE 3 Concepts o Carrying capacity o Total # of biological units of animals or population that can be supported by biophysical system without physical damage on the system o How – when you hav too many ppl visiting national park, there is a potential that it can exceed the carrying capacity of the park  Invading  Every system has each threshold levels – below which there is a very small insignificant change and above which there is a significant damage in the system. (over shoot and collapse)  Physical use of the environment by the tourist would change but if there over flow of tourist it can exceed the carriying capacity and damage the system – over shoot and collapse o Assimilative capacity – every system have the ability to absorb and neutralize, dissipate, disperse, or biodegrade without any damage on the system  Within certain concentration of the system – it can break down without damage to the system  When there is over concentration – exceeds the assimilative capacity – then we have irreversible damage to the system o Regenerative capacity - Ability of bio physical system to recover or replenish themselves after environmental disturbances (eg. Forests – giving time and space – all the wide life can regenerate the forest  The skill, frequency and how fast the destruction is taking place can exceed the regenerative capacity o Principles of sustainability o Precautionary principle - the fate of ignorance or lack of scientific evidence of global environmental changes - we should take actions to avert or avoid the irreversible damage on natural system – is it premised on the assumption that scientific knowledge is provisional which implies that it is tentative(can’t understand the complexity of the natural systems) o Polluter-pay principle – requires that the companies and individuals should be held accountable for the pollution that they cause. They should either clean up the contaminants or pay the cost of the clean up  Methods of sustainability – 3 approach - Input approach – the use of renewable resources( flow resources- water soil) should be less than or equal to regenerative capacity (take trees from forest and wait 10 years – give environment to recover)  You can’t take money than you earn – not sustainable - The use of non-renewable resources should be done in rate, amount and time that will help us to discover new resources (stock or finite in supply – copper coal oil – if you are removing, it should be in rate amount and time so that it can be regenerated) - Output method of sustainability – related to assimilative capacity – the discharge of waste materials should be less than or equal to the assimilative capacity of the natural system o If you release waste materials little by little- the environment can be better than releasing a lot at the same time – hard to change back to original state Debates between 2 schools of thoughts – Environmental sustainability o Cornucorpians – greek mythology – believe that there is endless resources – that they can use resources forever or indefinitely o Cassandra - princess of Troy – known for dire predictions o Going to be severe impact on environment Idea that you can use national parks to develop places for tourism - still claim that you leave it in good condition of the future generation Positive contribution of the tourism - Much of the money comes from sales or fishing licences - Mountain gorillas – endangered species so a number of ppl in travel to Uganda, Kenya, and Democratic republic of congo to track gorillas($250) – money goes into conservation of endangered species o In the indian ocean - $90 – travellers entry fee and the money goes into wildlife conservation in a parameter protection o West Virginia – wild water rafting tax – charge for any person taking part in commercial rafting – part of money is used to scientific studies to determine the impact of rafting activities on wild life - Also money is used to clean up wasted material of tourists o Belize – departure tax - $3.75 – when leaving the country – money diverted into protected area management activities o 6 yrs ago $25 – cost Orica - Very hot tropical areas – temperature differentials ppl demand A/C or refrigerator, etc which is relevant for tourism development. now tourist are demanding energy star appliances - Some hotels are improving energy uses by designing computer systems which automatically shuts off energy supply to some levels in rooms if it is not occupied. Vegetation removal on ski slopes - impact on tourism Regenerative capacity – if we keep clearing the trees on ski slopes – sometimes its good to remove 20 cm 1987 avalenge – 60 ppl dies, abt 7000 ppl made homeless in the ALPS of swiss Italian NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM - Impact on Bio diversity 1) exotic species  Alien foreign or non-native  In order to enhance fishing – foreign varieties can overwhelm the native species- (putting different fishes in fishing areas  Idea of pets is a social construct – based on a value judgement pets and pests  Bring snakes – they were not part of the ecosystem in US so overwhelmed system 7 2) removal of mangroves(trees which grow along the shoreline – called intertidal zone or lithoral zone) and vegetation
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