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GEO 911 (2)

kviva las vegas.rtf

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GEO 911
Brad Mac Master

Gated communities “Gated Communities are residential areas with restricted access in which normally public spaces are privatized. They are security developments with designated perimeters, usually walls or fences, and controlled entrances that are intended to prevent penetration by nonresidents. They include new developments and older areas retrofitted with gates and fences, and they are found from the inner cities to the exurbs and from the richest neighbourhoods to the poorest.” Estimated 1/3 gated communities are luxury developments, 1/3 are retirement orientated and 1/3 are middle class communities. In 1997 there were an estimated 20, 000 gated communities in U.s with more than 3 million housing units Estimated in 2000: 50 million americans (20 percent of population) lived in a gated community. Issue of privatization of general municipal services isolated from larger political system Private communities provide own security, screen maintenance, recreation amenities, parks, garbage pickup etc- taxpayers are relieved of these costs However the effect may be to reduce voter support for general tax programs additional services (e.g., schools, police) and for measures to address community problems Fraying of social contract: it isn't our problem Government by legal contract, not social contract. Balkanize urban areas into a patchwork of insular privately governed and public communities Blank walls, limited access, self contained; result; impoverished streetscapes and street vitality A residential area with roads that have gates to control the movement of traffic and people into and out of the area Gated communities can impact the local economy in several ways. The homes inside gated communities tend to retain their value better during market downturns. Along with the high- income residents who populate many gated communities, this can offer a tax boost to the municipalities that include gated communities. However, gated communities can also encourage economic inequality by creating a physical barrier between high- and low-income neighborhoods. The presence of a nearby gated community can actually cause home values outside the community to suffer by comparison. Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions Covenants, Codes and Restrictions (CC&Rs) are written by developer, but typically are only subject to change by a supermajority (2/3 of all owners, not just those who vote); complicated by seasonal residents and absentee owners who rent out their properties; change is often very difficult. CC&Rs are used by the developer to create a lifestyle image—often a key part of their promotion and marketing. The developer maintains effective control until 51 percent of units are sold; a reserve is set aside for the association expenses Written by Developer Covenants, conditions and restrictions. A document that controls the use, requirements and restrictions of a propert CC&R are used by the developer to create a lifestyle image often a key part of their promotion and marketing Typically are only subject to change by supermajority (2/3) Covenants, Conditions & Restrictions. These are rules set up for a particular association that govern anything from the type and size of the structures to be built, type of roofing allowed, fencing requirements, cutting of trees, and dues to be paid to association. CC&RS MAY: Restrict homeowner from posting a "for sale" sign on their yard prohibit door to door campaigning by candied and prohibit candidates' sign require specific levels of landscape care prohibit children from playing in the front yard( ban basket ball nets) Prohibit leaving cars parked in driveways overnight prohibit the flying of flags Jim Crow Laws: Origins of “Jim Crow” obscure Basically refers the laws and customs of segregation which dominated much of America from the early 1900s until the 1950s at least May 18, 1896: Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson that inferior accommodations for blacks on railways did not constitute a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause— this opened the way for Jim Crow. Physical racial separation was not seen as necessary until the Jim Crow era since a social distance mechanism existed until the increase in mobility of Black Americans in the 1910-20 period. Sanctioned by law and custom racial segregation in schooling, housing, jobs, unions, public transportation, hospitals, orphanages, sports and recreation, churches, prisons, funeral homes and cemeteries; you name it and someone instituted it: curfew laws for blacks, separate brothels, separate drinking fountains, separate entrances, separate washrooms, separate elevators; in North Carolina and Florida school texts used by one race could not be used by the other In housing laws segregated blocks and neighbourhoods, designating all-White and all- Black areas; there were all sorts of specific means for accomplishing the goals; in some cases (e.g., in New Orleans) a person of either race had to get consent of the majority of persons in an area before being able to reside there, in others, there was no explicit legal sanction—the issue was simply one of ensuring one knew one’s place, enforced by threat and violence 1917: U.S. Supreme Court made racial zoning ordinances unenforceable (Buchanan v Warley), but this did not cover private agreements; the fallback position was the use of racially restrictive covenants which became the norm in real estate practice (they were in turn declared unenforcable in 1948) Black life in Las Vegas: 1920s: only 58 black residents, no restrictions on their patronage of business except for Block 16 brothels Jim Crow developed in 1930s; denial of business licenses, barring of blacks by businesses; denial of housing except in W
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