GMS Chapter 11
The Nature of Leadership
- Leadership: is the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish
Leadership and Power
- The foundation for leadership success rests with an ability to make things
happen in ways that serve the goals of the team organization.
- Power: is the ability to get someone else to do something you want done
or make things happen the way you want.
- Position Power: Based on things managers can offer to others.
o Reward power: is the capacity to offer something of value as a means
of influencing other people. Influence through rewards.
o Coercive power: is the capacity to punish or withhold positive
outcomes as a means of influencing other people.
o Legitimate power: is the capacity to influence other people by virtue
of formal authority, or the rights of office.
- Personal Power: Based on how managers are viewed by others
o Expert Power: is the capacity to influence other people because of
o Referent power: is the capacity to influence other people because
of their desire to identify personally with you.
Leadership and Vision
- Vision: is a clear sense of future.
- Truly great leaders are really good at turning their visions into
- Visionary leadership: brings to the situation a clear sense of the future
and an understanding of how to get there.
Leadership as service
- The concept “service” is central to integrity and leaders who have
integrity act as “servants of the organization”
- Servant Leadership: is based on a commitment to serving others to
helping people use their talents to full potential while working together
for organizations that benefit society.
- Empowerment: enables others to gain and use decision-making power.
Leadership Traits and Behaviors
Leadership Traits - “the great person theory”, is the search for universal traits or
distinguishing personal characteristics that would separate effective from
- A comprehensive review by Shelly Kirkpatrick and Edwin Locke identifies
these personal traits of many successful leaders.
o Drive: successful leaders have high energy, display initiative, and
o Self-confidence: Successful leaders trust themselves and have self
confidence in their abilities.
o Creativity: Successful leaders are creative and original in their
o Cognitive ability: Successful leaders have the intelligence to
integrate and interpret information.
o Job-relevant knowledge: Successful leaders know their industry
and its technical foundations
o Motivation: Successful leaders influencing others to achieve
o Flexibility: Successful leaders adapt to fit the needs of followers
and the demands of situations.
o Honesty and Integrity: Successful leaders are trustworthy; they
are honest, predictable, and dependable.
- Leadership Style: is the recurring pattern of behaviors exhibited by
- Focused attention on two dimensions of leadership style:
o Concern for the task to be accomplished
o Concern for the people doing the work
- A leader high in concern for the task plans and defines the work to be
done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear work standards, urges task
completion, and monitors performance results.
- A leader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward
followers, maintains good social relations with them, respects their
feelings, is sensitive to their needs, and shows trust in them.
- Managerial styles in Blake and Mouton’s Leadership Grid.
o Country club manager: focuses on peoples needs, building
relationships. High concern for people, low concern for
o Team Manager: Focuses on building participation and support for
a shared purpose. High concern for people, high concern for
o Impoverished Manager: Focuses on minimum effort to get work
done. Low concern for people, low concern for production.
o Authority- Obedience Manager: Focuses on efficiency of tasks and
operations. Low concern for people, high concern for production. Classic Leadership Styles
- A leader with an autocratic style: Acts in a unilateral, command and
control fashion. Emphasizes task over people. “authority obedience manager”
- Leader with a human relations style: emphasizes people over tasks.
“country club manager”
- A leader with a laissez-faire style: displays a “do the best you can and
don’t bother me” attitude.
- A leader with a democratic style: emphasizes both tasks and people.
Contingency Approaches to Leadership
Scholars became increasingly uncomfortable with the notion that a “high-
high” leader was always best. They developed the following contingency
approaches with the goal of understanding the conditions for leadership
success in different situations.
Fielders Contingency Model: An early contingency leadership model was
developed by Fred Fiedler. He proposed that good leadership depends on a
match between leadership style and situational demands.
- Understanding Leadership Style: measured on the least preferred co-
worker scale, known as LCP scale and found as the end of chapter self
assessment. It describes tendencies to behave either as a task motivated
leader (low LCP score) or as a relationship leader (high LCP score). This
either/or concept is important. Fiedler believes that leadership style is
part if ones personality; therefor it is relatively enduring and difficult to
change. He doesn’t place much hope on a task motivated leader to behave
in a relationship manner.
- Understanding Leadership Situations: 3 contingency variables are used to
diagnose situational control.
o The quality of leader-member relations (good or poor)
Measures the degree to which the group supports the
o The degree of task structure (high or low)
Measures the extent to which task goals, procedures, and
guidelines are clearly spelled out.
o The amount of position power (strong or weak)
Measures the degree to which the position gives the leader power
to reward and punish subordinates.
- Matching Leadership Style and Situation: in Fielders research, neither the
task oriented nor the relationship oriented leadership style proved
effective all the time. Instead, each style seemed to work best when used
in the right situation. o Position 1- a task oriented leader will be most successful in either
very favourable (high control) or very unfavorable (low control)
o Position 2- a relationship- oriented leader will be most successful
in situations of moderate control.
Hersey- Blanchard Situational Leadership Model
- The possible combinations of task oriented and relationship oriented
behaviors result in four leadership styles.
o Delegating: allowing the group to take responsibility for task
decisions; a low task, low relationship style.
o Participating: emphasizing shared ideas and participated decisions
on task directions; a low task, high relationship style.
o Selling- emplaning task directions in a supportive and persuasive
way; a high- task, high relationship style.
o Telling- giving specific task directions and closely supervising
work; a high-task, low relationship style.
Path-Goal Leadership Theory
- Directive leadership: letting subordinates know what is expected;
giving directions on what to do and how; scheduling work to be done;
maintaining definite standards of performance; clarifying the leaders
role in the group.
- Supportive leadership: doing things to make work more pleasant;
treating group members as equals; being friendly and approachable;
showing concern for the well being of subordinates.
- Achievement- oriented leadership: setting challenging goals;
expecting the highest levels of performance; emphasizing continuous
improvement in performance; displaying confidence in meeting high
- Participative leadership: involving subordinates in decision
making; consulting with subordinates; asking for suggestions from
subordinates; using these suggestions when making a decision.
- Path Goal Contingencies: The path goal theory advises managers to
use leadership styles that fit situational needs.
- Substitutes for Leadership: are factors in the work setting that direct
work efforts without the involvement of a leader.
Leader-Member Exchange Theory
- The tendency of leaders to develop special relationships with some team
members. This is called the leader member exchange theory (LMX).
- In the LMX theory people fall into “in-groups” and “out-groups”.
o In groups: often considered the best performers. They enjoy
special and trusted high exchange relationships with the leaders that can translate into special assignments, privileges, and access
o Those in the “out-group” are often excluded from these attributes
and benefits; they have low-exchange relationship with the leader.
Leader- Participation Model
- The Vroom-Jago leader-participation model indicates that leadership
success results when the decision-making method used by a leader best
fits the problem being faced.
- The leaders choices for making decisions fall into 3 categories:
o Authority decision: is made by the leader and then
communicated to the group.
o Consultative decision: is made by a leader after receiving
information, advice, or options from group members.
o Group decision: is made by group members themselves.