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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Masoomeh Moharrer

Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 1 Multiple Choice Questions CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 112. Which statement accurately describes the role of management history relative to contemporary management thought? A. Since the world of work and business are changing often dramatically in some industries managers have little to gain from studying the history of management thought. B. Many modern management concepts have parallels in some of the historical management writings. C. Contemporary managers are not trying to reinvent management practice; rather they are trying to perfect ideas that have deep historical roots. D. A and B. E. B and C. E GT Fa 113. Which of the following statements is NOT an accurate description of the history of management? A. The history of management can be traced back as far as 5000 B.C. B. Management activities have been important to the development of different civilizations. C. Ideas of specialized tasks and division of labour helped to accelerate industrial change. D. Mass production proved to be of little value in the modern economy. E. Contemporary management thinking continues to develop rapidly. D GT Fa CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES (STUDY QUESTION 1) 114. The three branches of the classical approach to management are __________. A. Behaviourism, rationalism, and self-actualization. B. Scientific management, administrative principles, and bureaucratic organization. C. Authoritarian, permissive, and homeostatic. D. Economic, modern, and self-actualizing. E. Open, closed, and entropic. B GT Fa 115. Which of the following statements correctly pairs the classical management approach with its the major contributors? A. The major contributors to scientific management are Frederick Taylor and Max Weber. B. The major contributors to administrative principles are Frank and Lillian Gilbreth C. The major contributors to bureaucratic organization are Henri Fayol and Mary Parker Follett. D. All of the above are correct. E. None of the above is correct. E GT Fa 116. The view that people will rationally consider available opportunities and do whatever is necessary to achieve the greatest personal economic gain is the underlying assumption of which approach to management thought? A. Quantitative approach. 2 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management B. Socioeconomic approach. C. Modern approach. D. Classical approach. E. Behavioural approach. D GT Fa Scientific Management 117. According to Frederick Taylor, the principal object of management should be __________. A. Profitability. B. Efficiency. C. Achieving the greatest good for society. D. The good of the community. E. Securing maximum prosperity for employer and employee. E GT Fa 118. Who is known as the father of scientific management? A. Frank Gilbreth. B. Max Weber. C. Henri Fayol. D. Frederick Taylor. E. Henry Mintzberg. D GT Fa 119. A follower of Frederick Taylor would be least likely to try to __________. A. Make results-based compensation a performance incentive. B. Select workers with the right abilities to do the job. C. Offer workers proper training. D. Motivate workers by encouraging them to work in small groups. E. Train supervisors to support workers by carefully planning their work. D MN Ap 120. The practical lessons of scientific management include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Make results-based compensation a performance incentive. B. Select workers with the right abilities to do the job. C. Allow workers to have input into the determination of work methods and performance standards. D. Carefully design jobs with efficient work methods. E. Train supervisors to support workers by carefully planning their work. C MN Ap 121. __________ refer(s) to a job science that includes careful selection and training of workers along with proper supervisory support. A. Administrative principles. B. Scientific management. C. Contingency theory. D. Self-actualization. E. Fayol’s principles of management. B KT Fa 122. Which of the following is NOT one of the four principles of scientific management developed by Frederick Taylor? A. Develop a science for every job. Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 3 B. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. C. Carefully train workers to do the job and provide proper incentives. D. Organize tasks into groups to encourage teamwork. E. Provide management support for workers. D GT Fa 123. Oxford Industries Inc. installed a new computer system to clock every worker’s pace to a thousandth of a second and to determine each worker’s pay and bonus scale on the basis of his or her performance against the standard. This is an example of __________. A. Administrative principles. B. Scientific management. C. Contingency theory. D. Self-actualization. E. Fayol’s principles of management. B GT Ap 124. __________ is the science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. A. Job design. B. Motion study. C. Workflow analysis. D. Task analysis. E. Role analysis. B KT Fa 125. __________ pioneered the use of motion studies as a management tool: A. Frederick Herzberg. B. Adam Smith. C. Abraham Maslow. D. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. E. Mary Parker Follett and James D. Mooney. D GT Fa 126. The work of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth on motion studies provided the basis for later advances in which of the following management areas? A. Job simplification. B. Incentive wage plans. C. Work standards. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. D GT Fa 127. United Parcel Service makes use of calibrated productivity standards as well as the timing of package sorting, delivery, and pickup to keep productivity at the highest level per employee. In developing worker productivity standards, UPS obviously makes use of _________. A. Behavioural theories. B. Self-actualization. C. Systems theory. D. Motion studies. E. Administrative principles. D GT Ap Administrative Principles 4 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 128. Henri Fayol’s __________ closely resemble the __________ that are used in contemporary businesses. A. Three rules of management … systems and contingencyapproaches. B. Administrative principles … systems and contingency approaches. C. Five duties of management … four functions of management. D. Notions of planning and organizing … ideas of command and coordination. E. Principles of collective and social responsibility … functions of management. C GT Fa 129. According to Henri Fayol, the five rules of management are __________. A. Foresight, organization, command, coordination, and control. B. Authority, responsibility, discipline, remuneration, and initiative. C. Centralization, stability, initiative, communication, and espirit de corps. D. Prediction, hypothesis, observation, experimentation, and verification. E. Standardization, centralization, negative entropy, communication, and homeostasis. A GT Fa 130. Which of the following statements does NOT provide an accurate description of Henri Fayol’s duties of management? A. To complete a plan of action for the future. B. To provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. C. To lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. D. To ensure that employees fully develop their talents in order to take over managerial tasks. E. To fit diverse efforts together, and ensure information is shared and problems are solved. D GT Fa 131. Henri Fayol is noted for originating which of the following concepts? A. The scalar chain principle. B. The unity of command principle. C. The unity of direction principle. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. D GT Fa 132. The __________ principle, as defined by Henri Fayol, states that there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from top to bottom in the organization’s hierarchy of authority. A. Scalar chain. B. Unity of command. C. Unity of direction. D. Communication control. E. Hawthorne. A GT Fa 133. The __________ principle, as defined by Henri Fayol, states that each person should receive orders from only one boss. A. Scalar chain. B. Unity of command. C. Unity of direction. D. Management order. E. Organization. B GT Fa Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 5 134. The __________ principle, as defined by Henri Fayol, states that one person should be in charge of all activities having the same performance objective. A. Scalar chain. B. Unity of command. C. Unity of direction. D. Classical design. E. Hawthorne. C GT Fa 135. Mary Parker Follett, a classical management theorist, believed that __________. A. Groups were mechanisms through which diverse individuals could combine their talents for a greater good. B. Organizations are communities in which managers and workers should labour in harmony. C. The manager’s job is to help people in organizations cooperate with one another and achieve an integration of interests. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. D GT Fa 136. Mary Parker Follett believed that making every employee an owner in the business would create feelings of __________. A. Collective responsibility. B. Stockholder ownership. C. Personal control. D. Individual achievement. E. Corporate sharing. A GT Fa 137. Mary Parker Follett believed that business problems involve a wide variety of factors that must be considered in relationship to one another. This belief foreshadowed the contemporary management concern with __________. A. Environmental analysis. B. Systems. C. Job design. D. Corporate culture. E. Multiculturalism. B GT Fa 138. Today’s concerns for managerial ethics and corporate social responsibility were foreshadowed by the classical writings of __________ which argued that businesses were services and that private profits should always be considered in relation to the public good. A. Frederick Taylor. B. Henri Fayol. C. Mary Parker Follett. D. Max Weber. E. Lyndall Urwick. C GT Fa 6 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management Bureaucratic Organization 139. Which of the following best states the impetus for the development of a bureaucratic organization? A. Max Weber was trying to define the one best way to perform a job. B. Max Weber was attempting to upset German society. C. Max Weber was reacting to the performance deficiencies in organizations of his day. D. Max Weber was attempting to identify a common set of employee needs in German society. E. Max Weber was interested in formulating exact rules of behaviour for German managers. C GT Fa 140. Max Weber was concerned that people in nineteenth century organizations were in positions of authority due to their __________ rather than their __________. A. Political connections … leadership traits. B. Social standing … job-related capabilities. C. Leadership qualities … job requirements. D. Economic wealth … social standing. E. Managerial competence … economic wealth. B GT Fa th 141. Max Weber believed that __________ could correct performance deficiencies in late 19 century German organizations. A. A loosely structured system. B. Bureaucracy. C. A contingent organization D. An organic organization. E. An adaptive organization. B GT Fa 142. _________ is an ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization founded on the principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority. A. A democratically structured system. B. A contingent organization C. An organic organization. D. An adaptive organization. E. Bureaucracy. E KT Fa 143. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of bureaucratic organizations? A. There is a clear division of labour and work duties and responsibilities are explicitly defined. B. There is a clear hierarchy of authority and each position reports to a higher level one. C. Organizational members are promoted on the basis of their social status. D. Rules and procedures are applied impartially and uniformly. E. Many written rules and procedures are used to guide job activities. C GT Fa Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 7 144. Weber’s conception of bureaucratic organizations included all of the following characteristics EXCEPT: A. Clear division of labour. B. Clear hierarchy of authority. C. Formal rules and procedures. D. Impersonality. E. Careers based on social and/or political connections. E GT Fa 145. Assume that an organization has a clear division of labour, standard rules and procedures, a well- defined hierarchy of authority, members selected for technical competence, and explicitly defined duties and responsibilities. This is an example of __________. A. A closed system. B. An open system. C. A bureaucracy. D. Negative entropy. E. Scientific management. C GT Ap 146. Efficiency in the utilization of resources and fairness in the treatment of employees and clients are potential advantages of __________. A. A bureaucracy. B. An open system. C. A closed system. D. Scientific management. E. Self-actualization. A GT Fa 147. Red tape, slowness in handling problems, resistance to change, and employee apathy are disadvantages of which type of organization? A. Closed. B. Complex. C. Administrative D. Conservative E. Bureaucratic. E GT Fa 148. Which one of the following statements about bureaucracy is true? A. The work of Max Weber is too outdated to be used in the modern science of management. B. The work of Max Weber still has a major impact on the present trends and directions of management. C. The work of Max Weber influenced only European management thinkers. D. Bill Gates bases the operations of Microsoft on Max Weber’s theories of specialization and division of labour. E. Max Weber believed that a bureaucracy was the most rigid and apathetic form of organization. B GT Fa 8 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 149. Current management trends regarding innovative organizational forms seek to __________. A. Achieve different structural goals than Weber pursued. B. Achieve the same goals as Weber wanted to achieve but with different structural approaches. C. Achieve the same goals as Weber pursued while using similar structural approaches. D. Ignore Weber’s structural goals. E. Create structures that are based on socioeconomic status. B GT Fa BEHAVIOURAL MANAGEMENT APPROACHES (STUDY QUESTION 2) 150. The foundations of the behavioural (or human resource) approach to management include all of the following components EXCEPT: A. The Hawthorne Studies. B. Maslow’s theory of human needs. C. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. D. The human systems contingencymodel. E. Argyris’s theory of personality and organization. D GT Fa 151. The behavioural (or human resource) approach to management basically assumes that __________. A. People at work will seek satisfying social relationships, respond to group pressures, and search for personal fulfillment. B. Management problems are best solved by qualitative rather than by quantitative analysis. C. People are easily understandable creatures. D. People are completely rational and responsive to economic incentives. E. Environmental reinforcements have little to do with people’s work behaviour. A GT Fa The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations 152. The Hawthorne Studies refer to __________ that was conducted at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company (predecessor to today’s Lucent Technologies). A. An intensive training program for workers. B. An education program for fast-track managers. C. A research program on technology. D. A research program on management decision-making. E. A research program on individual productivity. E GT Fa Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 9 153. Which one of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the illumination experiments of the Hawthorne Studies or one of the experiments conducted in response to the results found in the illumination experiments? A. The researchers expected that better lighting would improve performance. B. The researchers found that performance and level of lighting were unrelated. C. The researchers concluded that these unexpected results were due to unforeseen psychological factors. D. The researchers explored various psychological and social factors in additional experiments. E. The researchers confirmed the direct link between physical conditions of work and individual productivity. E GT Fa 154. A key conclusion from the Hawthorne relay assembly test room studies was that __________. A. Workers cannot be productive at various levels of illumination. B. Workers are basically rational. C. Workers perform well when they share pleasant social relations with one another and when supervision is participatory. D. Workers are more productive when their pay scale is increased to match their effort. E. Workers are more productive when their work areas are well lighted. C GT Fa 155. Which of the following statements about the Hawthorne Studies is incorrect? A. The studies were started to identify the influence that “social factors” had on productivity. B. The studies were started to determine the effect that different levels of lighting had on productivity. C. In one study, workers’ productivity increased as the level of illumination at their workstations was decreased. D. The “social setting” of the various experiments influenced the results of the studies. E. People would restrict output to avoid the displeasure of the group, even if it meant sacrificing pay. A GT Fa 156. The Hawthorne Studies have been criticized for which of the following reasons? A. Poor research design. B. Weak empirical support for the conclusions drawn. C. The tendency of researchers to overgeneralize their findings. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. D GT Fa 157. The Hawthorne Studies shifted the attention of managers and scholars away from the technical and structural concerns emphasized by the classical management approach and toward __________. A. A more scientific approach to management. B. In-depth studies of actual case histories and individual experiences. C. The use of computers to deal with more complex mathematical models. D. The study of social and human concerns as keys to productivity. E. A Theory X approach to management science. D GT Fa 10 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 158. __________ showed that people’s feelings, attitudes, and relationships with coworkers should be important to managemen. A. Scientific management. B. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. C. The Hawthorne Studies. D. Max Weber. E. Henri Fayol. C GT Fa 159. The tendency of persons singled out for special attention to perform as predicted just because of expectations created by the situation itself is called __________. A. The Bakersfield method. B. The Engersoll finding. C. The Hawthorne Effect. D. The glass ceiling effect. E. The deficit principle. C KT Fa 160. The Hawthorne Studies contributed to the emergence of the __________ movement as an important influence on management thought during the 1950s and 1960s. A. Modern relations. B. Human relations. C. Social relations. D. Scientific relations. E. Cultural relations. B GT Fa 161. __________ was based on the viewpoint that managers who used good human relations in the workplace would achieve productivity. A. Modern relations. B. Social relations. C. Scientific relations. D. Cultural relations. E. Human relations. E KT Fa 162. The study of individuals and groups in organizations is the social sciences field known as __________. A. Organizational behaviour B. Contingency theory C. Systems theory D. Modern behavioural methods. E. Theory X and Theory Y A KT Fa Chapter 2: Management Past to Present 11 Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs 163. Maslow’s work in the area of human needs is important to which area of management thought? A. Classical approach. B. Scientific management. C. Systems theory. D. Human relations movement. E. Contingency theory D GT Fa 164. A psychological or physiological deficiency that a person feels compelled to satisfy is known as a(n) __________. A. Desire. B. Need. C. Compulsion. D. Obsession. E. Satisfaction deficit. B KT Fa 165. __________ create tensions that can influence a person’s work attitudes and behaviours. A. Desires. B. Whims. C. Compulsions. D. Obsessions. E. Needs. E GT Fa 166. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory includes which of the following needs? A. Food, shelter, sex, money, and prestige. B. Physiological, spiritual, social, and psychological fulfillment. C. Physical safety, financial security, and social status. D. Physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. E. Respect, prestige, recognition, security, and power. D GT Fa 167. __________ refer to the needs for basic biological maintenance such as food, water, and physical well-being. A. Physiological needs. B. Safety needs. C. Social needs. D. Esteem needs. E. Self-actualization needs. A GT Fa 12 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 168. __________ refer to the needs for security, protection, and stability in the events of daily life. A. Physiological needs. B. Safety needs. C. Social needs. D. Esteem needs. E. Self-actualization needs. B GT Fa 169. __________ concern the needs for love, affection, and belongingness in one’s relationships with other people. A. Physiological needs. B. Safety needs. C. Social needs. D. Esteem needs. E. Self-actualization needs. C GT Fa 170. __________ involve the needs for respect, prestige, recognition, and self-esteem; and a personal sense of competency and mastery. A. Physiological needs. B. Safety needs. C. Social needs. D. Esteem needs. E. Self-actualization needs. D GT Fa 171. __________ include the needs for being self-fulfilled and to grow and use abilities to the fullest and most creative extent. A. Physiological needs. B. Safety needs. C. Social needs. D. Esteem needs. E. Self-actualization needs. E GT Fa 172. According to the deficit principle of Maslow’s theory of human needs, __________. A. People have a variety of needs, or deficits, that they must satisfy at any given time. B. Each person has different needs. C. People are not motivated by a satisfied need. D. People are always in need of something. E. No matter what their condition in life, all people are looking for basic security. C GT Fa Chapter 2: Management Past to
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