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Department
Global Management Studies
Course
GMS 200
Professor
Masoomeh Moharrer
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 18: Change Leadership 1 Multiple Choice Questions CHAPTER INTRODUCTION 162. Which of the following statements does NOT provide an accurate description of the nature and/or impact of change in contemporary businesses? A. Intellectual capital, knowledgemanagement, and learning organizations are increasingly important in the modern business world. B. The new economy has created tremendous turmoil but few genuine opportunities. C. Most traditional organizations have realized that they must change to survive. D. Increasingly, successful companies have cultures that thrive on change. E. Many organizations are slow in responding to change. B GT Fa 163. Which of the following statements does NOT provide an accurate description of the nature and/or impact of change in today’s organizations? A. Most leaders are quick in responding to change. B. Creating positive change in organizations is not an easy task. C. Change involves complexity, uncertainty, anxiety, and risk. D. Leading organizational change takes great understanding, discipline, and leadership commitment to creativity and innovation. E. Innovation is a primary source of competitive advantage in the modern business world. A GT Fa 2 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP AND INNOVATION (STUDY QUESTION 1) Strategic Leadership 164. __________ are ones that mobilize people, values, and systems to achieve continuous change and performance improvements driven by the lessons of experience. A. Learning organizations. B. Manufacturing organizations. C. Service organizations. D. Organic organizations. E. Adaptive organizations. A KT Fa 165. __________ refers to the “ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization.” A. Team leadership. B. Strategic leadership. C. Organizational leadership. D. Organization development. E. Multidimensional management. B GT Fa 166. The components of strategic leadership include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Shaping the organization’s environment. B. Determining the organization’s purpose or vision. C. Exploiting and maintaining the organization’s core competencies. D. Sustaining an effective organizational culture. E. Establishing balanced organizational controls. A GT Fa 167. Which of the following is NOT a component of strategic leadership? A. Determining the organization’s purpose or vision. B. Developing the organization’s human capital. C. Establishing powerful reward systems. D. Sustaining an effective organizational culture. E. Emphasizing and displaying ethical practices. C GT Fa Creativity and Innovation 168. __________ is the generation of a novel idea or unique approach to solving problems or crafting opportunities. A. Creativity. B. Invention. C. Entrepreneurship. D. Intrapreneurship. E. Innovation. A KT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 3 169. __________ is the process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. A. Creativity. B. Invention. C. Entrepreneurship. D. Intrapreneurship. E. Innovation. E KT Fa 170. All of the following statements correctly describe the innovation process EXCEPT: A. Process innovations result in better ways of doing things. B. Product innovations result in the creation of new or improved goods and services. C. Process and product innovations support invention. D. Process and product innovations support application. E. Creativity is not essential for innovation. E GT Fa 171. __________ result in better ways of doing things. A. Product innovations. B. Business changes. C. Process innovations. D. Experiments. E. Design changes. C KT Fa 172. _______ result in the creation of new or improved goods and services. A. Product innovations. B. Business changes. C. Process innovations. D. Experiments. E. Design changes. A KT Fa 173. Which of the following is NOT a leadership responsibility for the innovation process? A. Imagining. B. Deciding. C. Experimenting. D. Assessing. E. Scaling. B GT Fa 174. Leadership responsibilities for the innovation process include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Thinking about new possibilities; making discoveries by ingenuity or communication with others; extending existing ways. B. Testing ideas in concept; discussing them with peers, customers, clients, or technical experts; building initial models, prototypes, or samples. C. Examining practicality and financial value through experiments and feasibility studies. D. Identifying strengths and weaknesses, potential costs and benefits, potential markets or applications, and making constructive changes. E. Recruiting motivated and competent people to market new products and services. E GT Fa 4 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 175. __________ is the process of turning new ideas into products or processes that can increase profits through greater sales or reduced costs. A. Product development. B. Process value analysis. C. Commercializing innovation. D. Marketing research. E. Supply chain management. C KT Fa 176. Which of the following is NOT one of the four steps in the pdevelopment process? A. Initial experimentation. B. Final application. C. Feasibility determination. D. Feasibility planning. E. Idea creation. D GT Fa 177. Discovering a potential product or a way to modify an existing product involves the __________ step of the produdevelopment process. A. Initial experimentation. B. Feasibility screening. C. Idea creation. D. Feasibility determination. E. Final application. C GT Fa 178. __________ is the stage of the proddevelopment process in which ideas are shared with others and prototypes are tested. A. Idea creation. B. Initial experimentation. C. Feasibility determination. D. Feasibility screening. E. Final application. B GT Fa 179. Consideration of the practicality and financial viability of a new product or service indicates that a company is in which stage of the proddevelopment process? A. Initial experimentation. B. Final application. C. Feasibility determination. D. Feasibility screening. E. Idea creation. C GT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 5 180. The __________ step of the product development process involves the commercialization of a new product for sale to customers or clients. A. Final application. B. Initial experimentation. C. Feasibility determination. D. Feasibility screening. E. Idea creation. A GT Fa Characteristics of Innovative Organizations 181. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which highly innovative organizations support creativity and entrepreneurship? A. Job design. B. Corporate culture and strategy. C. Organization structure. D. Organizational staffing. E. Top management. A GT Fa 182. With respect to corporate strategy and culture, highly innovative organizations do all of the following EXCEPT: A. Are willing to take risks. B. Stress extremely challenging goals. C. Accept failure. D. Emphasize an entrepreneurial spirit. E. Expect innovation. B GT Fa 183. Suppose an organization has an organic structure that relies on lateral communications, cross- functional teams, and task forces. This organization would be one that is seeking to __________. A. Maintain the status quo. B. Innovate very little. C. Innovate to a moderate degree. D. Be highly innovative. E. Innovate but doesn’t know how to do it. D GT Fa 184. Highly innovative organizations have top managers who do all of the following EXCEPT: A. Understand the innovation process. B. Tolerate criticism and differences of opinion. C. Create conflict to stimulate creativity. D. Take all possible steps to keep goals clear. E. Maintain the pressure to succeed. C GT Fa 6 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 185. In highly innovative organizations, different critical innovation roles need to be fulfilled. Which of the following is NOT one of these critical innovation roles? Idea generators. A. Information gatekeepers. B. Product champions. C. Project managers. D. Innovation followers. E GT Fa 186. In highly innovative organizations, certain key roles must be fulfilled. These include all of the following roles EXCEPT: A. Those who serve as links between people and groups. B. Those who perform technical functions on the innovation project. C. Those who advocate the status quo and some sense of stability. D. Those who create new insights from internal discoveries or external awareness. E. Those who encourage, sponsor, and coach others to keep innovation values and goals in place. C GT Fa ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE (STUDY QUESTION 2) Change Leadership 187. A __________ is a change agent who takes leadership responsibility for changing the existing pattern of behaviour of another person or social system. A. Change leader. B. Behavioural leader. C. Managerial agent. D. Social worker. E. Social system manager. A KT Fa 188. A part of every manager’s job is to act as a __________ in the workplace. A. Behavioural agent. B. Managerial agent. C. Change agent. D. Social change manager. E. Social system manager. C GT Fa 189. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately contrast change leadership with status quo management? A. Change leaders are threatened by change; status quo managers are confident of their ability. B. Change leaders are willing to take risks; status quo managers are bothered by uncertainty. C. Change leaders seize opportunities; status quo managers prefer predictability. D. Change leaders expect surprise; status quo managers support the current state of affairs. E. Change leaders make things happen; status quo managers wait for things to happen. A GT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 7 Models of Change Leadership 190. __________ occurs when senior managers initiate changes with the goal of having a comprehensive impact on the organization and its performance capabilities. A. Top-down change. B. Bottom-up change. C. Incremental change. D. Outside-in change. E. Inside-out change. A KT Fa 191. Top-down change is initiated and directed by top management. It usually includes all of the following implications EXCEPT: A. Top-down change may be perceived as insensitive to the needs of lower-level personnel. B. Top-down change may encounter excessive resistance. C. Top-down change relies on the willingness of middle-level and lower-level managers to actively support top-management initiatives. D. Top-down change can be implemented effectivelythrough the use of force. E. Top-down change may fail due to insufficient commitment of lower-level employees to changing. D GT Fa 192. __________ occurs when the initiatives for change come from any and all parts of the organization, not just top management. A. Top-down change. B. Bottom-up change. C. Incremental change. D. Outside-in change. E. Inside-out change. B KT Fa 193. The implications of bottom-up change include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Initiatives for change come from people throughout the organization. B. Bottom-up change is essential for organizational innovation. C. Change is made possible through empowerment, involvement, and participation. D. Bottom-up change facilitates the adaptation of operations and technologies to the changing work environment. E. Bottom-up change requires the approval and close oversight of top-level managers. E GT Fa 194. Which of the following descriptions of integrated change leadership is/are accurate? A. The most successful and enduring change leadership is that which can harness the advantages of both top-down and bottom-up change. B. Bottom-up change initiatives are necessary to build institutional capability for sustainable change and organizational learning. C. Top-down change may be neededto break traditional patterns and implement difficult economic adjustments. D. B and C. E. A, B, and C. E GT Fa 8 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management Transformational and Incremental Change 195. __________ is change that occurs spontaneously in organizations, largely in response to unanticipated events. A. Performance change. B. Crisis-induced change. C. Unplanned change. D. Innovative change. E. Disruptive change. C GT Fa 196. __________ responds to events as or after they occur. A. Reactive change. B. Planned change. C. Transactional change. D. Transformational change. E. Incremental change. A KT Fa 197. __________ takes steps to best align the organization with anticipated future challenges. A. Reactive change. B. Planned change. C. Transactional change. D. Transformational change. E. Incremental change. B KT Fa 198. The discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs is the __________. A. Unexpected result. B. Performance gap. C. Unplanned deficiency. D. Planning differential. E. Change differential. B KT Fa 199. __________ is a type of planned change that results in a major and comprehensive redirection of the organization. A. Reactive change. B. Planned change. C. Transactional change. D. Transformational change. E. Incremental change. D KT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 9 200. Which of the following statements provide useful lessons regarding how to lead transformational change? A. Establish a sense of urgency for change. B. Create and communicate a change vision. C. Celebrate short-term “wins” and recognize those who help. D. Stay with it; keep the message consistent; champion the vision. E. All of the above are useful lessons regarding how to lead transformational change. E MN Fa 201. Which of the following statements provides a useful lesson regarding how to lead transformational change? A. Form a powerful coalition to lead the change. B. Empower others to move change forward. C. Build on success; align people and systems with new ways. D. A and B. E. A, B, and C. E MN Fa 202. __________ is a type of planned change that bends and nudges existing systems and practices to better align them with emerging problems and opportunities. A. Reactive change. B. Planned change. C. Transactional change. D. Transformational change. E. Incremental change. E KT Fa Forces and Targets for Change 203. External forces for change in contemporary organizations include all of the following EXCEPT: A. The global economy and local economic conditions. B. Governmental laws and regulations. C. Organizational culture. D. Technological developments and market trends. E. Social forces. C GT Fa 204. __________ for change arise when a change in one part of the organizational system creates the need for change in another part of the system A. Global forces. B. External forces. C. Interdepartmental forces. D. Internal forces. E. Managerial forces. D GT Fa 10 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 205. Which of the following statements is correct with respect to internal forces for organizational change? A. There are no internal forces for change, only external forces. B. A change in one part of the organization can create the need for change in another part of the system. C. Internal forces for change are not as significant to the organization as external forces. D. Internal forces for change can only be identified after dealing effectivelywith the external forces. E. Once an internal force for change has been addressed, it will not have an impact on the organization again. B GT Fa 206. The organizational targets for change include all of the following EXCEPT: A. Tasks. B. People. C. Structure and technology. D. Social forces. E. Culture. D GT Fa 207. Organizational targets for change include all of the following EXCEPT: A. The nature of work as represented by organizational mission, objectives, and strategy; and the job designs for individuals and groups. B. The attitudes and competencies of the employees and the human resource systems that support them. C. The value system for the organization as a whole and the norms guiding individual and group behaviour. D. The operations and information technologyused to support job designs, arrange workflows, and integrate people and machines into systems. E. The conditions in the marketplace, including changes in customer preferences and needs. E GT Fa LEADING PLANNED CHANGE (STUDY QUESTION 3) 208. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe the process of managing planned change? A. Change is a complicated phenomenonin any setting. B. Human nature always stands at the heart of change being a complicated phenomenon. C. People do not act habitually; more often than not, they act in random and erratic ways. D. People may not want to change even when conditions require it. E. Managers and change agents need to deal with people’s tendencies to resist change. C GT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 11 Phases of Planned Change 209. The unfreezing, changing, and refreezing phases are all parts of what process? A. Planned-change process. B. Decision-making process. C. Conflict resolution process. D. Organization design process. E. Negotiation process. A GT Fa 210. __________ is the change phase in which a situation is prepared for change and felt needs for change are developed. A. Unfreezing. B. Sensing. C. Changing. D. Refreezing. E. Refocusing. A KT Fa 211. Unfreezing can be accomplished by all of the following EXCEPT: A. Establishing a good relationship with the people involved. B. Helping peers realize that present behaviours are not effective. C. Identifying new, more effective ways of behaving. D. Minimizing expressed resistance to change. E. Helping subordinates realize that present behaviours are not effective. C GT Fa 212. __________ is the phase in which something new takes place in the system, and change is actually implemented. A. Unfreezing. B. Changing. C. Transforming. D. Refreezing. E. Refocusing. B KT Fa 213. Changing, the second phase of Lewin’s planned organizational change model, can be implemented by __________. A. Identifying new, more effective ways of behaving. B. Choosing appropriate changes in tasks, people, culture, technology, and/or structure. C. Taking action to put changes in tasks, people, culture, technology, and/or structure into place. D. All of the above. E. None of the above. D GT Fa 12 Schermerhorn & Wright: Management 214. __________ is the phase of stabilizing the change and creating the conditions for its long-term continuity. A. Unfreezing. B. Changing. C. Transforming. D. Refreezing. E. Refocusing. D KT Fa 215. Refreezing can be accomplished by __________. A. Creating acceptance and continuity for the new behaviours. B. Providing necessary resource support. C. Using performance-contingent rewards and positive reinforcement. D. A and C. E. A, B, and C. E GT Fa 216. Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Lewin’s model of planned organizational change? A. Planned change consists of three phases. B. The change agent performs the same tasks during each phase of the change process. C. Modifying the organizational targets of tasks, people, culture, technology, and structure occurs during the changing phase of the planned change process. D. Unfreezing involves developing felt needs and preparing a system for change. E. The change agent is concerned with stabilizing the change and creating conditions for long- term continuity in the refreezing phase of the planned change process. B GT Fa Change Strategies 217. A force-coercion strategy for change involves the use of __________. A. Expertise and rational argument. B. Referent and expert power. C. Formal authority and/or rewards or punishments. D. Shared power. E. Creativity and innovation. C KT Fa 218. Which of the following characteristics does NOT accurately describe the behaviour of a change agent who uses a force-coercion strategy? A. The change agent believes that people are basically motivated by self-interest and what the situation offers in terms of potential gains or losses. B. The change agent tries to identify people’s vested interests and then applies pressure to those interests. C. The change agent exploits any weakness that he/she discovers. D. The change agent uses formal authority along with rewards and punishments. E. The change agent avoids political alliances. E GT Fa Chapter 18: Change Leadership 13 219. A change agent may take direct and unilateral action to command that change occurs. The change agent is using what version of force-coercion? A. Informational manipulation. B. Indirect forcing. C. Direct forcing. D. Power sharing. E. Lateral manoeuvring. C GT Fa 220. A change leader might work indirectly to gain special advantage over other persons in the attempt to make them change. This is a version of force-coercion known as __________. A. Informational manipulation. B. Direct forcing. C. Political manoeuvring. D. Power sharing. E. Rational persuasion. C GT Fa 221. Suppose that a manager uses special knowledge, empirical data, and rational argument to bring about change. This manager is relying on the __________ change strategy. A. Normative-reeducative. B. Rational persuasion. C. Unfreezing-refreezing. D. Facilitation-support. E. Force-coercion. B KT Fa 222. Which of the following characteristics does NOT accurately describe the behaviour of a change agent who uses a rational persuasion strategy? A. The change agent must convince others of the cost-benefit value of the change. B. The change agent believes that people are guided by reason in their actions and decision making. C. The change agent uses information and facts to communicate the desirability of change. D. The change agent relies on legitimate power. E. The change agent assumes that people are guided by facts, reason, and self-interest. D GT Fa 223. A(n) __________ strategy engages people in a collabourative process of identifying values, assumptions, and goals from which support for change will naturally emerge. A. Shared power. B. Rational persuasion. C. Unfreezing-refreezing. D. Facilitation-support. E. Force-coercion. A KT Fa 14 Scherm
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