Chapter2- History of Management- Past and Present
What can be learned from classical management thinking?
What insights come from the behavioural management approaches?
What are the foundations of modern management thinking?
Management Ideas and Practice throughout History
Egyptian pyramid construction (5000 BC)
Chinese dynasties (2250 BC)
The industrial revolution (1750-1850)
large scale production
highly specialized workers
Birth of classical management.
Look at figure 2.1 Major branches in the classical approach to management.
Frederick W. Taylor (1856-1915)
An American mechanical engineer
The "father of scientific management"
One of the first management consultants
Frank (1868-a924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth
Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.
Practical lessons from scientific management
Make results-based compensation a performance incentive
Carefully design jobs with efficient work methods
Carefully select workers with the abilities to do these jobs
Train workers to perform jobs to the best of their abilities
Train supervisors to support workers so they can perform jobs to the best of their abilities
Problems with scientific management
Workers are necessarily human
No time to relax
No permission to innovate.
Case study: the global value of iPhone
It isn't just that workers are cheaper.
The vast scale of overseas factories as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign
workers have so outpaced their American counterparts.
One of Apple's biggest manufacturers, Foxcoon, is a Taiwan based company.
allegations of employee mistreatment
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Communication as a necessary ingredient to successful management 14 administrative principles
Rules of management
Key principles of management
Unity of command
Unity of direction
Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
An ideal, intentionally rational,, and very efficient form of organization that could correct
performance deficiencies in late 19th century German organizations
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
Clear division of labour
Clear hierarchy of authority
Formal rules and procedures
Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy
Excessive paperwork or "red tape"
Slowness in handling problems
Look at figure 2.2 Foundations in the behavioural or human resource approached to management
Administrative principles: Mary Parker Follett (an American social worker, management consultant,
Manager's job is to help people in the organization cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.
Concerns for managerial ethics and corporate social responsibility
Were carried out by the Western Electric company at their Hawthorn plant in the 19020's.