Lecture 5 (chapter 2):
Employees are like ROBOTS Taylor’s scientific Management
Fredrick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management, which
emphasizes careful selection and training of working and supervisor support. He
advocated the following four principles:
1. Develop for every job a “science” that includes rules of motion and proper
2. Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
3. Carefully train workers to do the job and give them incentives
4. Support workers by carefully planning their work.
Fayol’s Principles for guiding Managerial actions
Fayol introduced the following key principles of management:
Scalar chain principle: there should be a clear and unbroken line of
communication from the top to the bottom of the organization.
Unity of command principle: each person should receive orders form only
Unity of direction principle: one person should be in charge of all activities
that have the same performance objective.
Max weber: bureaucracy promotes efficiency fairness.
Bureaucracy: as an ideal, rational and very efficient form of organization founded
on principles of logic and order.
Characteristics of bureaucratic organization include the following:
Clear division of labour.
Clear hierarchy of authority.
Formal written rules.
Impersonality: no one receives preferential treatment.
Careers based on merit. Disadvantages of bureaucracy:
Slowness in handling problems.
Rigidity on the face of shifting customer or client needs.
Resistance to change.
Mary Parker Follett: Organizations as Communities
Managers and workers should labour in harmony, without one party dominating the
other and with freedom to do what they want.
People’s feelings, attunes, and relationships with co-workers influence their
The Hawthorne effect was identified as a tendency of people who are singled out
for special for special attention to perform as anticipated merely because of
expectations created by the situation.
This helped in the human relations movement study in the 1950s and 1960s.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
Physiological needs: most basic of needs, food, water and physical well-being.
Safety needs: need for security, protection.
Social needs: need for love affection sense of belongingness.
Esteem needs: need for esteem, in eyes of others; need for respect and
Self-actualization needs: highest level; need for self-fulfilment; to grow
and use abilities to fullest and most creative extent. McGregor: choose theory Y over X.
Theory X managers assume:
Self-fulfilling prophecy: theory X managers create situations where workers
become dependent and reluctant.
Theory Y mangers assume:
Willing to work.
Imaginative and creative.