Management Learning- Past and Present Lecture 4
Classical school of thought:
Approaches include (Assumption: People are rational):
Scientific management – Frederick Taylor, The Gilberths
Administrative principles- Henry Fayol, Mary Parker Follet
Bureaucratic organization- Max Weber
Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every
Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
Support workers by carefully planning their and removing obstacles.
Scientific management (The Gilberths)
Motion study, Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.
Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) rules of management:
Forecast, Planning Organization, Command, Coordination, Control.
Key principles of management:
Scalar chain, Unity of command, Unity of direction.
Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follet):
Groups and human cooperation
Forward-looking management insights
Bureaucratic organization (Max Webber):
- An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization.
- Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority.
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
- Clear division of labour
- Clear hierarchy of authority
- Formal rules and procedures
- Careers based on merit
Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy
- Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
- Slowness in handling problems
- Rigidity in the face of shifting needs - Resistance to change
- Employee apathy
Human resource approaches (Assumption: People are social and self-actualizing) include:
- Hawthorne studies – Elton Mayo
- Maslow’s theory of humans needs – Abraham Maslow
- McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y- Douglas McGregor
- Argyris’s theory of adult personality- Chris Argyris
- Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker ouput.
- No consistent relationship found.
- “Psychological factors” influenced results
- Relay assembly test-room studies
- Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and group processes.
- Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies.
Maslow’s theory of human needs
A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy.
- Physiological- Most basic of all human needs;
- Safety- Need for security, protection, and stability in the events of day to day life
- Social- Need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other
- Esteem- Need for esteem in eyes of others; need for respect, prestige, recognition and self
- Self-actualization –Highest level: need for self-fulfillment to grow and use abilities to
fullest and most creative extent
- A satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour.
- A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-l