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GMS 401: Chapter 10 Statistical quality control.docx

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Robert Meiklejohn

Chapter 10: Statistical quality control Introduction The best companies emphasize designing quality into the process (ex. Undertaking continuous improvement and Six Sigma quality projects), thereby greatly reducing the need for inspections/tests. Statistical quality control: Use of statistical techniques and sampling in monitoring and testing of quality of goods and services -It provides an economical way to evaluate the quality of products and meet the expectations of the customers Inspection: Appraisal of a good or service against a standard Statistical process control planning process Effective statistical process control requires the following planning steps: 1. Define the quality characteristics important to customers, and how each is measured. -To be defined in sufficient detail not just for ex. The paint but the gloss of the paint or resistance of the paint. 2. For each characteristic: a. Determine a quality control point -Such as at the beginning or end of the process b. Plan how inspection is to be done, how much to inspect, and whether it is to be centralized on-site c. Plan the corrective action Statistical process control Statistical process control (SPC): Statistical evaluation of the product in the production process -For this to be done, an operator takes periodic samples from the process and compares them with predetermined limits. Types of variations and sampling distributions Random variation: Natural variation in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors -Deming refers to it as common variability of the process Assignable variation: Non-random variability in process output; a variation whose cause can be determined -Deming referred to as special variation The main task in SPC is to distinguish assignable variation from random variation. Control charts Control chart: A time ordered plot of a sample statistic with limits Control limits: The dividing lines for the value of sample statistic between concluding no process shift and a process shift, hence random and assignable variations Type 1 error: Concluding that a process has shifted (ie. An assignable variation is present) when it has not (ie. Only random variation is pres
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