Quality - If the item performs the function for which it was intended, the item has quality. If not,
it LACKS quality.
Standard - A generally accepted set of specifications as to what an item should be.
ISO - world wide standard
OHSAS 8001 -
“What is OHSAS 18001?
OHSAS 18000 is an international occupational health and safety management system
specification. It comprises two parts, 18001 and 18002 and embraces BS8800 and a number of
Who Wrote It?
OHSAS 18001 was created via a concerted effort from a number of the worlds leading national
standards bodies, certification bodies, and specialist consultancies.
How Can it Help?
OHSAS helps in a variety of respects... it helps: minimise risk to employees/etc; improve an
existing OH&S management system; demonstrate diligence; gain assurance; etc. The benefits can
be substantial .” .
Dimensions of Quality
Performance: main characteristics or function of the product.
Aesthetics: appearance, feel, taste, smell.
Special Features: extra characteristics or secondary functions.
Safety: reduction or elimination of risk of injury or harm.
Reliability: consistency of performance over time (not failing for a certain length of time)
(Recall MTBF from Ch. 4S?)
Durability: Long Life
Perceived Quality: Subjective evaluation (e.g. reputation, image)
Service after Sale : warranties, maintenance, and handling of complaints
Latent quality: Assumed quality (not expressed by customers but important)
An office cleaner: “What is clean”—opinions vary on this.
Tangibles: physical appearance of the facility, equipment, personnel, and communication
Convenience: availability and accessibility of the service.
Reliability: ability to perform a service dependably, consistently, and accurately. Responsiveness: willingness of the service provider to help customers in unusual situations and
to deal with problems.
Time: The speed with which the service is delivered.
Assurance: The knowledge exhibited by personnel and their ability to convey trust and
Courtesy: the way customers are treated by employees.
Determinants of Quality
A product’s QUALITY is determined during:
1. Product design.
2. Process design.
QFD - Should be used to translate the customer requirements into technical attributes of the
product and their target values (specifications)
Conformance to Design Specs - The DEGREE to which the produced goods or services conform
to or achieve the specifications of the designer(s).
Specification - tells suppliers EXACTLY what you want the item or service you’ve ordered to be.
It must be precise and complete with nothing vague or you could end up with an item that
meets specs but still doesn’t function as you had expected
Cost of Quality
Internal Failure Costs
External Failure Costs
Appraisal (Detection) costs
Deming's 14 Points
Table 9-4 Juran’s 10 steps for continuous improvement:
Build awareness for the need and opportunity for quality improvement.
Set goals for improvement.
Organize people to reach the goals.