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Chapter 7.doc

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Ryerson University
Global Management Studies
GMS 401
Kirk Bailey

Chapter 7 – Design of work Systems - Job Design: Specifying the content(what) and method(how) of a job. 1. Objective is productivity, safety, and quality of work life 2. Two basic elements of job design: • Efficiency school: emphasizes a systematic, logical approach to labor cost reduction • Behavioral school: emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs of workers as a motivator for increased productivity Efficiency approach - Includes specialization, method analysis, and time standards - Specialization: Focusing the job to a narrow scope Behavioral Approach - Job enlargement: Giving a worker a large portion of the total task 1. Horizontal loading - Additional load is on same level of skill and responsibility as original job 2. Make job more interesting by increasing variety of skills required and letting workers more of a recognizable contribution to overall output - Job rotation: Workers periodically exchange jobs 1. Allow workers to broaden their learning experience and enable them to fill in for other and avoid repetitive motion injuries - Job enrichment: Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination 1. Vertical loading – additional work on higher skill and responsibility from the original job - Importance of these approaches to job design is to increase motivational power of jobs by increasing worker satisfaction through improvement in quality of work life - Self-directed teams: Groups who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain decisions and changes in their work. (Autonomous team) 1. Empowered to make decisions involving their work as a group 2. Achieve high level of teamwork and employee involvement 3. Workers who are close to the process and have the best knowledge of it are better suited than management to make most effective changes to improvement process 4. Pros: Fewer managers needed, improves responsiveness to problems, and require less time to implement improvements, higher quality and productivity, greater worker satisfaction Methods Analysis - Method analysis: Breaks down the job into a sequence of tasks and elements and improves it - Basic procedure in methods analysis: • Identify the job to be studied and gather all pertinent facts about its operations, machines, equipment, materials, and so on • Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor • Analyze and document the present method of performing the job • Question the present method and propose a new method - Analyzing and improving methods is facilitated by use of: 1. Process charts: Chart used to examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on movements of the operator or flow of material • Can be helpful in identifying non-productive parts of the process such as delays, temporary storages, distance travelled • Example of representative questions: 1. Can operation be eliminated? 2. How can travel distances be shortened or avoided? 3. Why is there delay, storage, or inspection at this point? 2. Worker-machine chart: Used to determine portions of a work cycle during which an operator and equipment are busy or idle • Analyst can see when operator and machine are working independently and when work overlaps or is interdependently Motion of Study - Motion of study: Systematic study of human motions used to perform an operation or task 1. To eliminate unnecessary motion and to identify the best sequence of motions for maximum efficiency - Different techniques that motions analysts can use to develop efficient procedures: 1. Motion economy principles: guidelines for designing motion-efficient work procedures 1. Guidelines divided into three categories: principles for use of the body, principle for arrangement of the workplace, and principles for design of tools and equipment 2. Analysis of elementary motions 2. Break jobs down into tiny elements and base improvements on an analysis of these basic elements by eliminating or reducing their difficulty, combining, or rearranging them 3. Micro-motion study: Use of motion pictures and slow motion to study motions that otherwise would be too rapid to analyze 4. Simultaneous hands motion chart: Chart that shows the elements performed by each hand, side-by-side, overtime. Working Conditions - Physical factors such as temperature and humidity, ventilation, illumination, noise and vibration, work breaks, safety, safety, ergonomics, workers’ well-being, and a healthy workplace can have significant impact on worker performance in terms of productivity and quality of output - Government passes worker protection act which require guards on machines, fire safety, boiler and elevator inspection, sanitation, ventilation, and adequate heating and lighting - Canadian Labour code (1996) include safety and other standards such as minimum wage - Labour code (1978) amended to give three rights to workers 1. To refuse dangerous work 2. To participate in improving safety and health problems (through joint management/labour committees) 3. To know about hazards in the workplace - Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (1998) creation of WHMIS - Ergonomics: Fitting the job to the workers’ capability and size Work Measurement - Work measurement: Determining how long it should take to do a job 1. Vital inputs for personnel planning, estimating labour costs, assembly-line balancing, and designing incentive systems - Stan
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