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Lecture

GMS 200 - Past and Present - History of Management

9 Pages
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Department
Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Professor
Sui Sui

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Week 8 GMS 200 Past/Present of Management
Study Questions
1.What can be learned from classical management thinking?
2.What ideas were introduced by the human resource approaches?
3.What is the role of quantitative analysis in management?
4.What is unique about the systems view and contingency thinking?
5.What are the continuing management themes of the 21st century?
SQ1: What can be learned from classical management thinking?
Classical approaches to management include:
oScientific Management
oAdministrative principles
oBureaucratic organization
Figure 2.1 Major branches in the classical approach to management
Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
oFather of scientific management, which emphasizes careful
selection and training of workers and supervisory support.
oDevelop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and
proper working conditions for every job.
oCarefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.
oCarefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
oSupport workers by carefully planning their work and removing
obstacles.
Scientific management (the Gilbreths [Frank and Lillian])
oMotion study
Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical
motions.
www.notesolution.com
A management tool (United Parcel Service)
oEliminating wasted motions improves performance.
Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) rules of management:
oForesight to complete a plan of action for the future.
oOrganization to provide and mobilize resources to
implement the plan.
oCommand to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the
best work toward the plan.
oCoordination to fit diverse efforts together and ensure
information is shared and problems solved.
oControl to make sure things happen according to plan and to
take necessary corrective action.
Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) key principles of
management:
oScalar chain there should be a clear and unbroken line of
communication from the top to the bottom of the organization.
oUnity of command each person should receive orders from
only one boss.
oUnity of direction one person should be in charge of all
activities with the same performance objective.
Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)
oGroups and human cooperation:
Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can
combine their talents for a greater good.
Organizations are cooperating “communities of managers
and workers.
Managers job is to help people in the organization
cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.
oForward-looking management insights:
Making every employee an owner creates a sense of
collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership,
profit sharing, and gain-sharing)
Business problems involve a variety of inter-related
factors (precursor of systems thinking)
Private profits relative to public good (precursor of
managerial ethics and social responsibility)
Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
oBureaucracy
An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of
organization.
www.notesolution.com
Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate
authority.
Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
oClear division of labor
oClear hierarchy of authority
oFormal rules and procedures
oImpersonality
oCareers based on merit
Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
oExcessive paperwork or red tape
oSlowness in handling problems
oRigidity in the face of shifting needs
oResistance to change
oEmployee apathy
SQ2: What ideas were introduced by the human resource approaches?
Human resource approaches include:
oHawthorne studies
oMaslows theory of human needs
oMcGregors Theory X and Theory Y
oArgyris’s theory of adult personality
Figure 2.2 Foundations in the behavioural or human resource approaches to
management
Hawthorne studies
oA research program on individual productivity that was
conducted at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company
(todays Lucent Technologies)
oInitial study examined how economic incentives and physical
conditions affected worker output.
oNo consistent relationship found.
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Week 8 – GMS 200 – Past/Present of Management Study Questions 1. What can be learned from classical management thinking? 2. What ideas were introduced by the human resource approaches? 3. What is the role of quantitative analysis in management? 4. What is unique about the systems view and contingency thinking? 5. What are the continuing management themes of the 21st century? SQ1: What can be learned from classical management thinking? Classical approaches to management include: o Scientific Management o Administrative principles o Bureaucratic organization Figure 2.1 – Major branches in the classical approach to management Scientific management (Frederick Taylor) o Father of scientific management, which emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support. o Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. o Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. o Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. o Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles. Scientific management (the Gilbreths [Frank and Lillian]) o Motion study Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. www.notesolution.com A management tool (United Parcel Service) o Eliminating wasted motions improves performance. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — rules of management: o Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future. o Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. o Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. o Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. o Control — to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — key principles of management: o Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization. o Unity of command — each person should receive orders from only one boss. o Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett) o Groups and human cooperation: Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater good. Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers. Manager’s job is to help people in the organization cooperate and achieve an integration of interests. o Forward-looking management insights: Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership, profit sharing, and gain-sharing) Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking) Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility) Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber) o Bureaucracy An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. www.notesolution.com Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority. Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations: o Clear division of labor o Clear hierarchy of authority o Formal rules and procedures o Impersonality o Careers based on merit Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy: o Excessive paperwork or “red tape” o Slowness in handling problems o Rigidity in the face of shifting needs o Resistance to change o Employee apathy SQ2: What ideas were introduced by the human resource approaches? Human resource approaches include: o Hawthorne studies o Maslow’s theory of human needs o McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y o Argyris’s theory of adult personality Figure 2.2 – Foundations in the behavioural or human resource approaches to management Hawthorne studies o A research program on individual productivity that was conducted at the Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company (today’s Lucent Technologies) o Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output. o No consistent relationship found. www.notesolution.com o “Psychological factors” influenced results. o Relay assembly test-room studies Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output. Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment. Factors that accounted for increased productivity: • Group atmosphere • Participative supervision o Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and group processes. Some things satisfied some workers but not others. People restricted output to adhere to group norms. o Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies: Workers perform well when they share pleasant social relations with one another and when supervision is
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