GMS 200 Lecture Notes - High High

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Chapter Eleven: Leading and Leadership Development
GMS Notes
Leadership the process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
Power the ability to get someone else to do something you want done or to make things happen the way you
want
Position Power based on things managers can offer others
Reward Power the capacity to offer something of value as a means of influencing people (If you do what I
ask, I’ll give you a reward)
Coercion the capacity to punish or withhold positive outcomes as a means of influencing other people (If
you don’t do what I ask, I’ll punish you)
Legitimate power the capacity to influence other people by virtue of formal authority, or the rights of office
(Because I am the boss, you must do as I ask)
Power of the Person based on how managers are viewed by others
Expert Power the capacity to influence other people because of specialized knowledge (You should do what I
want because of my special expertise or information)
Referent power the capacity to influence other people because of their desire to identify personally with you
(You should do what I want in order to maintain a positive, self-defined relationship with me)
Leadership and Vision
Vision a clear sense of the future
Visionary leadership brings to the
situation a clear sense of the future and an
understanding of how to get there
Servant leadership leadership based on
commitment to helping others in their work
Empowerment enables others to gain and
use decision-making power
Leadership styles the recurring pattern of
behaviours exhibited by a leader (concern for
the task to be accomplished and concern for
the people doing the work)
A leader high in concern for the task plans and defines the work to be done, assigns task responsibilities, sets clear
work standards, urges task completion and monitors performance results.
A leader high in concern for people acts warm and supportive toward followers, maintains good social relations
with them, respects their feelings, is sensitive to their needs and shows trust in them.
CLASSIC LEADERSHIP STYLES
Autocratic one who acts in a unilateral command and control fashion
Human relations on who emphasizes people over tasks
Laissez faire one who displays a “do the best you can and don’t bother me” attitude
Democratic emphasizes both tasks and people
CONTINGENCY THEORIES
1. Fred Fiedler came up with an early contingency leadership model. He proposed that good leadership
depends on a match between leadership styles and situational demands. Leadership style in Fiedler’s model is
measured on the least-preferred co-worker scale, known as the LPC scale. It describes tendencies to behave
either as a task motivated leader (low LPC score) or as a relationship motivated leader (high LPC score).
2. Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders do adjust their styles.
3. Robert House developed the path-goal theory. This theory suggests that an effective leader is one who
clarifies paths by which followers can achieve both task related and personal goals. The best leaders help
followers move along these paths by clarifying goals, removing barriers, and providing valued rewards for
goal accomplishment.
Directive leadership letting subordinates know what is expected; giving directions on what to do and how
Supportive leadership doing things make work more pleasant; treating group members as equals
Achievement oriented leadership setting challenging goals; expecting high levels of performance
Participative leadership involving subordinates in decision making; consulting with subordinates
Participating
Share ideas
(followers able, unwilling,
insecure)
Selling
Explain decisions
(followers unable, willing,
confident)
Delegating
Turn Over decisions
(followers able, willing,
confident)
Telling
Give instructions
(followers unable, unwilling,
insecure)
High
Low
Low
High
Relationship
Behaviour
(support
required)
Task Behaviour
(guidance required)
4. Leader-Participation Model
The Vroom-Jago leader participation model indicates that leadership success results when the decision
making method used by a leader best fits the problem being faced. An authority decision is made by
the leader and then communicated to the group. A consultative decision is made by the leader after
gathering information and advice from others. A group decision is made by the group with the
leader’s support as a contributing member.
Issues in Leadership Development
Charismatic leader develops special leader-follower relationships and inspires followers in
extraordinary ways (sometimes called “superleaders”)
Transactional leadership uses tasks, rewards, and structures to influence and direct the effort of
others
Transformational leadership is inspirational and arouses extraordinary effort and performance
Emotional intelligence the ability to manage our emotions in social relationships
Gender similarities hypothesis holds that males and females have similar psychological properties
Interactive leadership leaders are strong communicators and act in a democratic and participative
manner with followers
Moral leadership is always “good” and “right” by ethical standards
Integrity in leadership is honesty, credibility and consistency in putting values into action
Authentic leadership activates positive psychological states to achieve self-awareness and positive
self-regulation
Follower contingencies
- ability
- experience
- locus of control
- task structure
- authority system
- work group
Leader styles
- directive
- supportive
- participative
- achievement oriented
LEADER EFFECTIVENESS
Contingency relationships in
House’s path goal leadership
theory