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Lecture 1

GMS 200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Knowledge Worker, Firstline, Closed System

Global Management Studies
Course Code
GMS 200
Shavin Malhotra

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GMS Chapter 1 Notes
Compromise Effect - Op.2 is there merely for people to move to op.3
Simpson's Paradox - An unexpected result that occurs when data is grouped together
Knowledge Worker- Someone whose mind is a critical asset to employers
Workforce Diversity- Describes the differences among workers. (gender, ethnicity, age etc)
Prejudice- The display of negative, irrational attitudes towards members of diverse population
Globalization- Worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets and business competition
Open System - Transforms resource inputs into product outputs.
- Needs to interact with the environment to thrive and survive.
- Organizations are Open Systems
Closed system- can survive by itself
General Environment: Composed of economic, legal-political, technological, socio-cultural, and natural environment conditions
Stakeholders- Are the persons, groups, and institution directly affected by an organization. (Ex: customers, suppliers, investors)
Strategic Positioning- An organization does different things or the same things in different ways from competitors
Management - Process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the use of resources to accomplish performance goals
What Constitutes the External Environment of Organizations:
(1) Economic Conditions: Concerned about customer spending influences, resource supplies, and investment capital
(2) Legal-Political Conditions: Developments must meet laws & regulations, gov. policies, etc
(3) Technological Conditions: Managers use latest technologies for work applications and are aware of their work implications
(4) Social-Cultural Conditions: Customs and social values such as ethics, human rights, gender roles and lifestyles
(5) Natural Environment Conditions: Environmental concerns impact government and businesses.
Sustainable Business- Meets the needs of customers and protects the well-being of our natural environment
Sustainable Innovation- Creates new products and production methods that have reduced environmental impact
Competitive Advantage
- Allows an organization to deal with market and environmental forces better than its competitors
Competitive Advantage can be achieved through:
1. Cost
2. Quality
3. Delivery
4. Flexibility
Environmental Uncertainty: Lack of information regarding what exists and what developments may occur in the environment
Ex. High uncertainty: technology. Rapidly changing
Low uncertainty: salt and sugar organizations
Organizational Effectiveness - Is sustainable high performance in using resources to accomplish a mission
(1) System Resource Approach - Focus on Resource Acquisition
(2) Internal Process Approach - Focus on Operations Efficiency
(3) Goal Approach - Focus on Key Objectives
(4) Strategic Constituencies Approach - Focus on Stakeholder Impact
Levels of Management
Top Managers - Responsible for the performance of an organization. (Ex. Board of Directors)
Middle Managers - Oversee the work of large departments/divisions (Ex. CEO, President, VP)
First-Line Managers (Team Leader) - Report to Middle Managers and supervise non-managerial workers (Ex. Supervisor, Leader)
Types of Managers
Line Managers - Directly contribute to producing the goods/service
Staff Managers - Use technical expertise to advise/support line workers
Functional Managers - Responsible for an area (ex. finance, marketing, production, sales)
General Managers - Responsible for complex, multifunctional units
Administrator - A manager in public or non-profit organization
Effective Manager - Helps others achieve high performance and satisfaction at work
Four Functions of Management
(1) Planning - Process of setting objectives and determining what should be done to accomplish them
(2) Organizing - Process of assigning tasks, allocating resources and coordinating work activities
(3) Leading - Process of arousing enthusiasm and inspiring efforts to achieve goals
(4) Controlling - Process of measuring performance and taking action to ensure desired results
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