GMS 401 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, Safety Data Sheet, Sounds Air

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Chapter 5: Design of work systems
Work Design
Involves:
oJob design
oWork measurement
oEstablishment of time standards
oWorker compensation
Decisions in other areas such as “Product or Service design” , in large
measure, determine the kinds of activities workers will be involved with
Layout decisions also influence work design.
Dependence on Human Efforts
The importance of work system design is underscored
by the organization’s dependence on human efforts to
accomplish its goals.
Many workers appear dissatisfied with their jobs.
Productivity is clearly a major concern of firms as well.
These 2 factors go hand-in-hand and are likely the key to improved productivity
and continuous improvement in product and service quality.
Objective: Satisfied customers and satisfied employees! Work Systems
improvements may be the key to achieving BOTH objectives
Operations strategy
Management MUST make design of work systems a KEY element of its operations
strategy!
Technology is still only part of the answer.
People are STILL the heart of a business and can make it or break it!
As such, many firms are focusing some of their attention on THE QUALITY
OF WORKING LIFE.
Worker EMPOWERMENT appears to be the key to surprising gains made by
some firms.
Job Design
Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job
Objectives:
Productivity
Safety
Quality of work life
Job design involves specifying the content and methods of job
What will be done
Who will do the job
How the job will bob will be done
Where the job will be done
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Ergonomics
Job Design Success
Successful Job Design must be:
Carried out by experienced personnel with the necessary training and background
Consistent with the goals of the organization
In written form
Understood and agreed to by both management and employees
Introduction to Job Design
Efficiency School
A refinement of Taylor’s scientific management concepts
Systematic, logical approach to job design
Labour cost reduction
Behavioural School
Emerged during the 1950s
Emphasizes satisfaction of wants and needs
Reminded managers of the complexity of human beings
Design of work systems
Specialization
Behavioural Approaches to Job Design
Teams
Methods Analysis
Motions Study
Working conditions
Specialization: Advantages
For company:
1. Simplifies training
2. High producvtivity
3. Low wage costs
For Workers:
1. Monotonous work
2. Limited opportunities for advancement
3. Little control over work
4. Little opportunity for self fulfillment
Behavioural Approach
Job Enlargement
Giving a worker a larger portion of the total task by horizontal loading
Job Rotation
Workers periodically exchange jobs
Job Enrichment
Increasing responsibility for planning and coordination tasks, by vertical loading
Teams
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Self-directed teams
Groups who perform the same function and are empowered to make certain
decisions and changes in their work.
Benefits of teams
Fewer managers are necessary
Higher quality
Higher productivity
Greater worker satisfaction
Method Analysis
Methods analysis
breaks down the job into sequence of tasks and elements and improves it.
Basic procedure:
Identify the job to be studied and gather information
Discuss the job with the operator and supervisor
Study and document the present method
Question the present method and propose a new one
Analyzing The Job-Proposing New Methods:
Careful thought required as to:
What, why, when, where, who?
Facilitated by:
Flow process charts
Used to review, critically examine the overall sequence of
an operation-----movements of the operator, flow of
materials
Used also to identify non-productive parts of the process
Worker-machine charts
Helpful in visualizing when equipment or operators are
idle or busy.
Process Charts
Chart used to examine the overall sequence of an operation by focusing on movements
of the operator or flow of materials
Ask:
Why is there a delay or shortage at this point?
How can travel distances be shortened/avoided?
Can an operation be eliminated?
Can the sequence be changed?
Can similar activities be grouped?
Would additional or better equipment help?
Example in Powerpoint
Checklist: ideas for improvement
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