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GCM 230 (57)


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Ryerson University
Graphic Communications
GCM 230
Diana Brown

Lecture 1: Intro & Graphic Design Process Lecture 4: Texture/Colour The Graphic Design Process Colour Relationships Colour Theory Lecture 2: Elements of Graphic Design – Point, Colour Contrast Line, Plane Colour and their Symbolism Elements of Design Texture Point, Line, Plane Symmetry Lecture 5: Figure, Ground, Framing Framing Lecture 3: Rhythm, Balance, Scale Positive/Negative Space Balance Figure/Ground Rhythm Scale Lecture 6: Packaging Design Types of Packaging Design Considerations Functions of a Package Sustainable Packaging Lecture 8: Hierarchy, Layers, Transparency HIERARCHY “Design is the conscious effort to impose a meaningful order” – Victor Papanek • Repeated design elements must be findable (like light switches in a house) • Need visual consistency through typographic style, horizontal grid use, column structure/margins • Designs should include order in which you want to be read • People can follow a chain, not multiple thoughts at once • Grids & hierarchy are important • Use of contrasting weight, contrasting colour, alignment, spatial intervals, uppercase spatial intervals, mixes of scale, colour, alignment • Does not need to be static > change angle of text (used by constructivists) Table of Contents is a hierarchal structure: • Well organized, reader sees flow of book • Easy to memorize • Uses alignment, leading, indents, type size to show order/importance 3D, Web, Dimensional Hierarchy • 3D packages added challenges of interacting w/ environment • Browser>more than one hierarchy>area that stays the same/changes, data clouds use type size • In dynamic environment, can show importance of time passing in real -time Achieving Hierarchy through… Dominance: influence of one element over another Emphasis: importance of one element over another (patterns- wallpaper, quilt, rug: lack emphasis) *combine the two to create visual hierarchy – path of eye movement Size, Colour, Shape, Value, Position, Emphasis LAYERS Simultaneous, overlapping components of image/sequence • Layer disappear in final artwork • Offset printing àsplit image into layers (CMYK plates) • Layers are separated for effect • Can use production layers as special effect by shifting out of place Cut & Paste • Stems from collage, popularized by cubists early 20 century (text/drawings) • Layers in this way creates depth • Changing the way image is layered can change style/meaning Types of Layers: Spatial • Visual environment (bookcase against wall) • Combine w/ flat surfaces to create combinations of depth Data • Maps use layers to communicate information visually • Typography, water systems, roadways, cities, geographic borders, etc. • Line, colour, text, symbols, icons, texture to create levels of info Temporal • Animation: use layers to compose multiple moving characters • Music Scores: layers used t o indicate various instruments • News Screens: use inset panels/text feeds to create multiple surfaces of info Typographic • People talking while multi-tasking (talking, while listening to music) • Typography, icons, lines, within a shared space TRANSPARENCIES • Physical world: transparent or opaque (wood vs. room full of air) • Transparency and layers are linked • Can be used to build complexity in file Types of Transparency: Physical • No material is wholly transparent all the time (ripples in water/smoke in air) Graphic • When physical effects of transparency are translated graphically • Lines, shapes, textures, letterforms • Ex. Burberry pattern design Digital • Altering opacity slider using PS, Illustrator, etc. • Accomplished using mathematical algorithm that averages im age tonal values (lose intensity when transparent) • Drop shadow, blend mode, feathering, graphic styles • Printing Considerations: o Must be flattened – divides transparent work into vector/raster areas o As artwork becomes more complex (mixing images, vectors, t ype, spot colours, overprinting etc.), so does flattening and its results o Rasterized files become less editable o PS, Illustrator, PDF(1.4+), EPS files keep transparency Best Practices: • Create transparencies in PS • DO NOT apply multiple transparencies to single objects • DO NOT create uneccessary transparencies (use tints) • Illustrator>Transparency Flattener Presets (Edit Menu) àPDF/X-1a • AVOID combining transparencies w/ overprints • AVOID using spot colours w/ transparencies (break down into CMYK when flattened) • Can create outlines w/ text if a problem • Place text as top layer, avoids: o artifacts/stitching: white hairlines around text box o Lines don’t print on high-end devices o Outlining portions of text Fact Bomb: Georgia got it’s name from tabloid headline “Alien heads found in Georgia” Lecture 9: Modularity & Grid MODULARITY Module: “any series of standardized units for use together.” – Webster Dictionary “each of a set of standardized parts/independent units that can be used to construct more complex structure, (furniture, building).” – Oxford Dictionary Modular Design: “design of components that can be assembled in a variety of ways to meet individual consume r needs.” – • Every design has set of constraints: design brief/specs, paper size/type, type of elements, colours, printing process/conditions, • Modularity is type of constraint – module is a fixed element w/in a system/structure or pixel bu ilds digital image • Modular alphabet, modular products, modular homes, modularity in printing industry • Modular design is process of taking small, standardized pieces to create a unique work. • Single modules can be simple (pixel art), but can come together tocreate innovative design • Constraints will always be present as a designer, embrace them to foster creativity Symbol Systems • Symbol represents objects, functions and processes • Based on geometric modules that come together • Symbols are modular GRIDS Breaks space or time into regular units • Too much choice is confusing, staring at blank page = overwhelming • Help designers understand interconnectedness btw/ seemingly random parts • Another way to approach design choices • Seen in printed pages, web, packaging • Give designers reference point, structured field to work with • Should be applied wen designing for all applications • Encourage designers to use white space Lecture 10: Pattern & Diagram PATTERN • Patters are cultural, require repetition (regular/irregular/randomized) • Dots, strips, grids are patterns (modules) that come from: o Isolated elements (dot/flower) o Linear elements (straight li
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