HST 111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Infant Mortality, Scientific Revolution, Seed Drill
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HST 111 WORLD TURN UPSIDEDOWN EUROPE 1350-1749
18th century: Agricultural Revolution
• Until mid-18th century, population growth is fairly erratic in Europe
• Human society can do of famine and disease. Independent of human control.
• Population of Europe grow significantly and continue to present day.
• Population of Prussia double, Hungary population tripled, England
population almost doubled
• Study of population known as demography. First, a slight decrease in infant
mortality. Secondly, gradual decline in mortality rate. Thirdly, decline in the
age at first marriage (because of mortality patterns)
• Women have certain number of years in which they are fertile. Young girls
mature physically earlier. First, cultural constraints where you suppose to get
marry before you have a child. Number of years engage in sexual activity is
limited in years she supposed to get marry. Dropping age of first marriage is
significant factor in raising the population overtime.
• Economies improved. People didn’t get married until they can establish an
• Peopled died in their 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s.
• Increase food supply. Eating a better diet make you more resistant to
infections and disease.
• Increase population brought pressure. Value of lands increase since more
mouths wanted food. Increase of demand and prices on goods. Agriculutural
products become more expensive, hence land has more value.
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• People at the bottom status start to get press off the land. Wealthy landlords
wants to buy off their lands.
• Migration within countries from the land to the towns. Period of
urbanization. Holland became the most urbanized out of all European
countries (two-thirds). Russia remains the most rural country in Europe.
• New towns emerge due to manufacturing. Making of goods generally
happen more and more in towns. Works were needed to produce goods and
jobs increase in towns. Secondly, governments increase and tend to
centralize power. Bureaucracies were needed. Court systems become more
centralized. All these government services need support network (stores,
coffee shops, Inns, etc).
• Half a million: Naples and Paris. 900,000 for London.
• Sewage became a problem for modern cities. Not getting rid of sewage can
• Distribution of food problem: we expect abundance of food every day.
Massive growth in the system that delivers food regularly and consistently
by animals and carts.
• Crimes became problem in early modern cities. Street lighting is something
people demand for security.
• Even before people flood into cities, they have to understand there will be
food for them. Change in food production has to has happened BEFORE.
• Increases in food productions: 1) Europe farmed more land in agricultural
production. 2) We see growth of more abundant and healthier livestock. 3)
not only more land put into production, yield per acre increases. 4)
improvement in climate. End of “mini ice age” (it was cooler and now
getting warmer) which extends growing season for crops. Crops come to
maturity and produce foods.
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