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HST 119 (16)

Independence and After

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Ryerson University
HST 119
Mima Petrovic

INDEPENDENCE ANDAFTER Spain and Portugal rule colonial LatinAmerica for about 3 centuries- 1492-1820s Colonisation: Domination and rule by outsiders; social, cultural and psychological process Colonial Political Organization: -Ruled by the Spanish crown 1. Viceroyalty of New Spain (1540s) (Mexico and the Carribbean) 2. Viceroyalty of Peru (1540s) (S.America) 3. Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717) 4. Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata (1776) -Colonial governments staffed by governors, or viceroys, sent from Spain to represent the crown. This was how the monarchy established its control over the new world. -Government engaged in many wars with the conquistadors, who wanted more independence. Many laws were implemented to try to control them. -Independence would later be carried out by descendents of the conquistadors who had been living on the continent for centuries. -Ruled by the Portuguese crown 1. Brazil- two viceroyalties -Transcultural Mixing -Christianity frequently forced on Native peoples andAfrican slaves. Many accepted it on a superficial level, maintaining their true beliefs. Indigenous andAfrican religions eventually permeated and mixed with SouthAmerican Catholicism. -Transculturation -Characterizes the colonial world. -Race Mixing -Social interaction, shared experience, and sexual mixing. Intermarriage and partnerships, sexual relationships very common in between lower class Europeans andAfrican & Indigenous peoples. Higher class European men frequently exploited lower classAfrican & Indigenous women, esp. slaves. Unequal
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