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HST210 – Progressive Party and WWI.docx

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HST 210
Jenny Carson

HST210 – US History 1877 to Present Lecture #8 – The Progressive Party and WWI William Howard Taft (GOP) - Roosevelt's friend o Roosevelt declares he wouldn't run again so he chose his friend t run - Continues to bust trusts, including Standard Oil and pursue progressive reforms. o Supports conservation - Tried to promote American interests without bombastic rhetoric - Dollar Diplomacy- advocates substituting bullets and force with business investment to increase American influence in Latin America and promote economic stability in the region Dollar Diplomacy - By 1913, half of America’s foreign investments were in Latin America (United Fruit Company). o UFC owned close to 200,00 acres of land in the Caribbean o Because they have the money to build infrastructure/railway - Dollar diplomacy increases US power in Latin America (and on occasion necessitates military intervention) Progressive Party - Taft and Roosevelt have a falling out and TR unsuccessfully challenges Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912. o Teddy thinks Taft is being too hard on corporations - When Roosevelt loses, he bolts the Republican Party and forms an independent party: the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party) Progressive Party and New Nationalism - Calls for women's suffrage, social welfare legislation, workers' compensation, and a host of other Progressive goals. - Roosevelt advocates heavy taxes on personal fortunes and corporations and federal regulation of the railway and mining industry The Election of 1912 - Taft (Republican) v. Roosevelt (Progressive Party) v. Woodrow Wilson (Democratic Party) v. Eugene Debs (Socialist Party). - Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican Party vote and Wilson (Democrat) wins President Wilson - New Freedom- vigorous regulation of big business, protection of workers’ rights and support of small business. o Politicians now adopting names for their platforms - Federal Reserve Act (1913) creates the Federal Reserve Board – increases government control over credit and money supply (interest rates!) o Central banking system in US - Supported limit on campaign donations (esp. for corporations) Wilson in Office - Federal Trade Commission Act (1914) created the Federal Trade Commission to investigate and prohibit corrupt, unfair, business practices. o So wall street doesn't do shady things - Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) strengthens antitrust legislation - Wilson wanted to help people who were at the bottom (not rich and not well connected) Wilson's Impact - Wilson’s domestic program expanded the scope of the federal government and continued the process of making the office of the Presidency the center of power in Washington. o The government is doing a lot more - TR and Wilson laid the foundation of the modern activist presidency and helped usher in the modern activist state o Through vigorous action, they expand the office of the presidency o Help shift power away from congress tot he presidency o Showed what the presidency can accomplish Conclude Progressivism - Progressives succeed in getting the state to assume a larger role in regulating the economy and in solving the nations social problems - The government gets involved in consumer rights, antitrust legislation, etc. - Many Americans accept that the government should take action to address social/economic problems - Progressivism dies out with WWI WWI: Europe's Competing Alliances - Central Powers: expansionist Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire/Turkey and Bulgaria - Allies: England, France, Italy, Russia, Romania and Japan (and more later on!) WWI - Emperor of Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, Russia supports Serbia, etc. - Caused by imperial rivalries, greed for territory and national prestige, and the alliance system. - Catalyst was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro- Hungarian throne, by a Serbian terrorist on June 28, 1914 - US doesn't want to get involved o Monro
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