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HST210 – WWII.docx

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Ryerson University
HST 210
Jenny Carson

HST210 – US History 1877 to Present Lecture #11 – WWII The Federal Government and WWII - War Powers Act (Presidential power). o gives president enormous powers over economy and society o president given power to create new agencies - FDR creates the War Production Board and Office of Mobilization. o helps industries convert to war production o businesses go along with reorganization b/c they receive federal government contracts o government gives businesses subsidies to build new plants/buy machinery o businesses earn huge profits for military contracts - Relationship between government and big business becomes closer as federal spending goes to large corporations, furthering the trend toward economic concentration o massive industrial buildup - The US becomes known as the arsenal of democracy - by 1944, 40% of the world's military production was coming form the US o wwII contributes to US's rise as an industrial powerhouse o decisive factor in the allied victory: the US's ability to overproduce over their enemies Women War Workers - government urges women to work - it is their duty to work and support the war effort - for the first time ever, women with children are recruited to work - government emphasized that this was a TEMPORARY matter African Americans and the War - One million rural Black southerners move to cities of the North to obtain jobs in defines industries (where they face considerable discrimination). o confined to lowest paying jobs in industries o hostility from white workers who don't want to work with AAs, don't want to see AAs being promoted o 1942, 200,00 white workers walked off the job in Detroit to protest the promotion of 3 black men - One million African Americans served in the segregated Armed Forces Double V Campaign - victory against fascism abroad - victory against racism at home Philip Randolph - Founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a Black union. o union that organizes porters - March on Washington Movement- precursor to the Civil Rights Movement. - Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802, banning discrimination in defence jobs and establishing the Fair Employment Practices Commission o fair employment practices commission oversees the executive orders, investigates instances of discrimination o first executive order regarding civil rights since reconstruction o FDR is putting his office behind equality o many industries ignored executive order o FDR sense people to investigate industries o at beginning of war 3% of defence jobs were held by AAs, at the end of the war it was close to 9% (direct correlation with executive order) o increased AA's access to industrial/government jobs Japanese-American Internment - when war began, there were 120,000 japanese americans living in california - anti-japanese sentiment already - when japan attacks US, this sentiment reaches new heights - high ranking officials in the army feared the japanese were planning an attack on the west coast - fear that japanese-americans were helping japanese prepare for an attack on the US o no evidence to support this > wartime hysteria - Executive Order 9906- California and parts of Oregon, Washington and Arizona were declared "war zones" from which Japanese Americans had to be removed. o in spring of 1942, japanese americans got one weeks notice to evacuate - 110,000 evacuees were forcibly relocated to relocation camps located in the western mountains and desert o many of them were american citizens, had been born in the US o camp conditions were deplorable o japanese americans remained there until the end of the war o once they were released, some returned to the west coast, but man
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