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HST210 – Cold War.docx

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HST 210
Jenny Carson

HST210 – US History 1877 to Present Lecture #12– Cold War Cold War - there were tension between the US and USSR during the war (even though they were allies) - A protracted geostrategic, economic and ideological struggle that pitted the United States and its allies against the Soviet Union and its supporters. o Individualism vs collectivism/socialism o communism vs capitalism o both of them want to promote/export their vision of government/society - Waged by means of diplomatic maneuvering, economic pressure, intimidation, propaganda, low-intensity military operations and full-scale proxy wars - called cold war because US never attacks the USSR and USSR doesn't attack US o fought through proxy wars and other places - witnesses biggest arms race in history Competing Postwar Visions - US envisions a postwar world characterized by American-led capitalist democracies. o so their economy is sustainable > just came out of Great Depression - Soviet Union promoted a worldview based on socialism and spheres of influence. o USSR worried about its own security > invaded twice in 20th century from the west - Soviet Union establishes communist governments in Eastern Europe (buffer zone or prelude to world domination??) o so they wouldn't be directly invaded again o 1945: USSR systematically moved to establish pro communist governments in one cantorial and eastern european nation after another  through any means necessary (including murder/intimidation/etc) o in 1948, all of eastern europe in under soviet control > Winston Churchill: locked behind an iron curtain Causes of Cold War - Soviet aggressiveness and expansionism or U.S. over-reaction and failure to recognize Russia’s economic and security concerns? - Both nations were operating in an unstable climate of fear and suspicion, and both nations were trapped by their own perceptions and rhetoric - many in the Truman administration believed that Stalin wanted to establish communism all over the world - 1947: US admin concluded that only a get tough policy would stem the spread of soviet style communism International Economic Order - US was committed to creating a liberal international economic system that would be conducive to American trade and investment. o a lot of countries indebted to the US o main goal os US: to prevent another Great Depression o US convinced that long term economic prosperity depended on having access to large foreign markets - Bretton Woods (1944)- regulations and institutions are created to promote a liberal international economy that favours open markets and free trade (IMF, World Bank) o 44 allied countries met and set ground rules to shape financial relationships o all promote a liberal economic economy that favours open markets and free trade o USSR not included o US rebuilds world economy along capitalist lines United Nations - International organization to mediate disputes among member nations. o security council comprised of 5 victors of WWII > US, France, Britain, China, USSR (veto power) - Provides humanitarian programs for war-torn Europe and Asia, but on other issues, the UN is hobbled by Cold War rivalries o soviets vetoing american stuff, americans vetoing soviet stuff Greece and Turkey - In 1946, communist forces in Greece and Turkey were threatening to topple the pro- western governments there. o communist party in greece strong during the war o at the end of the war, communist party is in a really strong position, but greece has a right wing government fighting communist power o Britain had been trying to help the greek government to fight communism, but couldn't after the war o if greed falls to communism, so will Turkey and everyone else creating a domino effect - US provides 400 million in aid to combat communism in Turkey and
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