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HST210 – Cold War Cont'd.docx

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Ryerson University
HST 210
Jenny Carson

HST210 – US History 1877 to Present Lecture #14– Cold War Cold War - Eisenhower and massive retaliation: necessitates an expensive and high tech defines policy (arms build up). o arms build up would protect the US from an attack - Ike’s critique of the MIC o expensive o it can lead arms/defence corporations to potentially have undue influence over the government Alliances and Developing World - US joins the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to work with regional and interested powers to contain communism in Southeast Asia. o they would work together to contain communism - After WWII, many nations gain independence from their former colonial powers (mostly in Africa, Asia and the Middle East) o period of instability for newly independent countries o instability has to do with how they were underdeveloped and exploited by their european colonial powers o countries have to figure out how they want to be politically organized o what direction the countries go in matters to the US and USSR o a lot of people in developing countries (Asia, Africa, Latin America) sympathized with communism/Marxism > egalitarian society where government controls resources Hearts and Minds - Capitalist West and Communist East will compete for the “hearts and minds” of the emerging nations. - Some of the newly emerging nations are attracted to socialist ideals and associate capitalism and the West with colonialism, racism and economic exploitation CIA and Covert Operations - CIA will engage in covert operations in the developing world to support nationalist (and pro-Western) governments being challenged by communist or leftist movements at home. - Jacobo Arbenz Guzman, the president of Guatemala, nationalizes thousands of acres of land, including land owned by the United Fruit Company o Arbenz is a liberal with socialist leanings o nationalize= government takes control over the land o Arbenz paid people in exchange for the land o Arbenz offers United Fruit Company money for land, they want more than he offered Guatemalan Coup (June 1954) - UFC organizes anti-agrarian campaign - UFC argues that Arbenz’s agrarian reform represents “Soviet expansion in the Americas”and lobbies the government (Allen and John Foster Dulles) for intervention. - CIA launches “Operation Success” to overthrow the Arbenz government by supplying a rebel army led by Carlos Castillo Armas with arms to “liberate”Guatemala o Guatemala is an imminent threat to US relations o June 1954: Castillo launched a coup that overthrew the Guatemalan president in 9 days - Castillo will reverse land reforms and disenfranchises thte population by implementing literacy tests in order to vote o 3/4 of the population can't vote US and Latin America - US will prop up right-wing dictators in many Latin American countries in order to contain the spread of communism. o Latin America is US's backyard - this has the horrible consequence of making the US implicit in some pretty nasty dictatorships - Domino theory: if one nation came under communist control, then neighbouring nations would also fall John F Kennedy (Republican) - Irish Catholic o never been a Catholic president o has to address/deal with being Catholic o criticism: allegiance to the Pope, he'll take marching order from Rome o "I am not running as the Catholic candidate, I'm running as a Democrat" o promised separation between church and politics - Wealthy Boston Family - Served in WWII - Served in the US House of Representatives and Senate (from Mass.) Kennedy-Nixon TV Debates - Nixon was Eisenhower's VP, runs against JFK - first televised presidential debate - Kennedy needed to look presidential bc he was young - Nixon was nervous/aggressive - people who watched the debate said Kennedy won, people who heard it on the radio said Nixon won Kennedy's New Frontier - he wanted to expand the new del, implement progressive social movements - JFK’s program calls for increased federal funding for education and Social Security, a higher minimum wage, medical care for the elderly, support for public housing and other antipoverty mea
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