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Lecture

HST 540 - Jan 15, 2014

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Department
History
Course
HST 540
Professor
Arne Kislenko
Semester
Winter

Description
- WW1 is the creation of intelligence services - The fundamental 19th century, - Fluctuates around public disclose, what they want/expect - We are the model that the intelligence services act upon - When something dramatic happen (collective in society) > we'd be clambering for a response, such as security protocols to make us feel safer by having government respond (ex. 9/11) - Especially in a Democratic society, we become popular with law and justice - The very first intelligence services are product of fear, fear is change. - Humans don't like fundamental change (too quick, too sudden and too painful) - has a sense of panic, no example like in the 19th century - The 19th and 20th century brings change quicker than any other century (on a grand scale of history, our world now with technology doesn't count) - Anyone who lived from 14th century to 18C weren't too great - The Industrial Revolution, where we invented things to make lives better - Historians use it to describe a global era where humans build more products, equipment (Technological inventions) - Ex. trains, sewing machines, automobiles, radios, railways, telegraph (communication) - Ex. Globalized education (mandatory), public education is why we're here at university - People can start to read and form opinions - The rise of feminism, the consciousness of rights, worker rights, spread of democracy/values, literacy rate - all on a social level - The global order is affected rapidly ~ which scares people, individual concepts change Most important products of the 19C: Nationalism - Intellectual idea, historical phenomenon as a fairly recent invention, doesn't exist till the late 18C - Most people design of the world before was 30 km of the place where they lived, the vast majority of humanity nowadays will not travel too far from their hometown (where they will die too) - Numerically, interior China even older people - All about technology now, there was no concept of the world before - Most people back then would have no visual of what Paris was for people in France except the place where the King lived - Our sense of identity has come through - Born over the development of the centuries, based on the Revolution of France which started in 1789 - People begin to question the world, lots of poverty on the streets of Paris - Foreign wars are expensive, people are angry - In the midst of this Revolution, the notion of togetherness is born chiefly out of it - Most Revolutions come in waves, there's a pattern to it - Comes the Monarch but then it becomes very bloody - The tales of the two cities by Charles Dickens - Guillotine killed many people - King Louis is beheaded, after he's killed he wishes upon the flood - Most nations respond by attack France, they want to contain the Revolution in the country itself - Many states are afraid of it, don't want it to spread and take advantage of France's plight (surrounding states) - Marie Antoinette is the sister of the Austrian's emperor, all royalty is connected by blood which leads to invasion - Revolution changes French society, ex. Afghanistan women can vote because of the French Revolution > has been echoing throughout humanity for 300 years > ex. National Assembly, Constitution, Courts, eventually universal suffrage (the right to vote, for men at first of course), the National Anthem, identify the sense of belonging - The concept that we people can build something up * - The idea that we can build stuff starts to spread, once invaded by multiple partners - the French rally to defend themselves which encourages the morality (between 1789 to 1815- there is a period of almost endless war) - This is an era that we associate with Napolean Bonaparte, he emerges from the French Revolution and leads to be the Emperor > he kept many ideas of the Revolution and takes the show onto the road - The ideas of the French Revolution march out into Europe - War is always a catalyst for ideas (ideas march with armies - they sleep with other women, take over shops, become locals sometimes) ; Armies are ambassadors and change the landscape of a European society - If you're a peasant you might hate the French but you admire that they have their stuff together and ask question how they kept it together - French eventually lose - Don't invade Russia but then Napolean decides to invade it - By the time he reaches Moscow, he finds out that they burnt down the city - The biggest military defeat, he uses 5/6 of his army who freeze - They have to march back home, now people think the French army is weak (other European countries) - All the places are called states, not nations nor empires * - Nations people are old, their cultures are traditional but always lives under Empires (such as Empire of Austia, and the Roman Empire, used to be Ottoman Empire) - These states didn't have their own identity with Nation - Germanic state was a collection of religions/ideas > Start with same language, you need a concept of language to communicate ideas/morals - You have to give people what they understand such as folk tales and food (you have to bind them together, ex. Brother's Grimm) > Fairytales are political traps that bring the nation together - Happens repeatedly, such as the Romans who bring states together - When you build of including, you also exclude those who don't meet the criteria ex. The Nazis, Cambodia - Nationalism is cancerous, the most ugly and costly work of the entire life - It produces so much trouble, that Empires are on the defence which leads the recipe to WW1 - Every nation state has it's own foundation - Another nation that emerges in the 19C is the U.S (consolidates), Japan (is a modern state) and CANADA! - More established powers - Germany goes from being a collection of states to all of a sudden being a massive Empire sitting in the middle of Central Europe - 1871, that's when it happen and - The 19th C is the product of -ISMS Imperialism - The speed of the 19C leads - The race of colonies, including the frontier of Africa - It's economic, you need resources from outside the colony - Require rubber, oil, steel, coal, cotton (grows in warm places) - you need empire - New empires create a rivalry Militarism - Economic system to keep up - Economic systems centred on Alliance System - Produces the need of Allies with the rise of Empires - So they can do the bidding, especially if you have an Ally that may be weak Social Darwinism - Some humans are enabled to survive better than other - Cynical justification for conquest - Profoundly serious changes - The world moves quick with secret services - the idea has been so enriched in our lives and have become worse in our world dominance - Very few things move so fast - The products (nationalism, imperialism, militarism, alliance system) invented in 19C - The theme to nurture is that public panic feeds these opportunities/necessities for the government to step in - Map of Europe, human has expanded (cities with 100,000 population) difference of 1800 and 1900 - Pressure of food, transportation, medical care - Resources are spread out through the cities - In Europe, industrialization takes over within 70 years since the population is so high with coal mines, etc,. - The pressure grows because there's less spec -Imperialism- In 1895- The end of the 19C-- The scramble for Africa is one of the biggest pressures for war - Empires are carving pieces of Africa for their own - Always knew about it but there was desert (Sahara) and there is a dense jungle -- takes them look time to carve civilization then French and British start building empires - Germany consolidates and enters the empire race - British go to Egypt to control Mediterranean canal and cotton plants, same with South Africa - French take over Algeria - 30 years later (1914), entire Africa was taken over and it became a mad scramble - everyone wants a piece. British had good chunk - Britannia (mythical goddess of England) rules the waves (is a song), sun never sets on the empire. By the late 19C, these saying are brilliant. > meaning the british navy is the most important (navy and empire comes together) - In the 19C, they excelled at imperialism -- they've very surgical, (arctic [Canada] to Australia) - India is the jewel of the empire, unbelievably rich and then took over Singapore - almost all of trading goes through this port - They take over the Suez crisis, want to take the choke point in water tunes - Nationalism is the most dangerous, cancerous entity in entire history - Ethnonicity (language & ethic) imperialism - Is a recipe for war, since French came through they were inspired by the idea of being united - States want to have their own place due to their - Ethnicity tend to bleed over - Sudan = newest country - In the 1990s, Europe went mad over Yugoslavia (civil murders) - Nationalism (the unification of german state due to religion, - German nation is new, 1871 but culture is historical - Hitler builds upon that feeling of belonging - Germany turns a collection of city states, literally over night into a nation - Become the biggest in Europe -Surpasses England with the production of coal but doesn't pass USA - 2nd biggest , puts a lot of pressure towards war Naval Race 1906- 1914 (or "Scare") - There's a arms race, called the Naval Race - There's a big military race, in the Navy's - Navy's are still the most important - For nation to show themselves is done through Navy - It's fought by Sea, not in sea. - Afghanistan took by entrance - Canada has biggest shipment of heroin because of the protection of our navy (anti-pirate work) - Navy = colonies, colonies = navy - The scare is difference than the race *exam - There is a real militarism race - The United Empire is the greatest, responsible for 50% of the world trace and 50% of global investments (no nation has ever succeeded this far, maybe US in the 1920s but is a hoax) - Comes through London, British want to hold onto their entitlement - In the light, unification of German and other states becomes a threat - British don't welcome Germany nation - Wary of Japan in 1960s and want imperialism acquisition - The U.S (1865) ended their civil war, became a threat - Canada formed 1867 - Everything happens in the 1860s - British decided to build the most supreme weapon that they can - US always to have a technological lead wherever, in capacity - wants to maintain its lead and does a good job - China is a generation behind in its productivity of technology and government HMS Dreadnought - Her Majesty Ship - Is one ship built in Liverpool, quickly becomes a class (category) of ships in 1906 *** - British build it using the best in their ability (weaponry, best architects) build in 5 years in response - Very expensive to keep empire going - In Britain's case, they want to build the best ship so they have greatest ease to defend their empire - They specialize in the best ships **, engineers have the best ship yards and techniques - Eventually US, Germany, French catch up with ships - HMS is the fastest ship, speed is very important in military engagement - Designed as an all-weather ship (means ice, warm weather, etc,.) -- sometimes it can eat boats (even steel) - You have to account how fast your boats will turnover, constantly need to rebuild so it can rotate through with its technological - Can function in adverse conditions - Still need an ice-breaker, can only go through some ice - Nations like Russia are icy, which means they don't have global access during most of the winter months - Have black sea, but Turkey blocks their entry - HMS has the biggest armour, has 12 inches of armour - More than twice density, means less damage from shells - Has 5 rotating (360 degrees) tourets (can hit any direction) - Maximum firing range is 500 yards (beyond optical range, enemy will never see you attack) now popular, gives an advantage - Develop very quickly a radar underwater with navigational techniques - The shot would be pretty accurate, 40% while everyone else is 20% - The speed of firing is faster, can saturate you with hundreds of shots while other can only do a couple shot (machine will jam) - When it comes off the dry docks, 2/3 of the world's navys are now obsolete - very effective - Nations start to panic, impossible to keep it a secret during public ceremonies (elites show up to see what's happening, no secret services yet) - French tried to get specification by spying later - Gifted
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