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Lecture 8

HST702 - Lecture 8 Fighting the War on the Home Fronts.docx

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Ryerson University
HST 702
Tomaz Jardim

HST702 October 23, 2013 Tomaz Jardim Fighting the War on the Home Fronts 1 - The Demands of Total War o The Unquenchable Thirst of Modern Conflict - In 1916, German army had 5.5 million men - Immense investment in the war began to reshape Europe fundamentally - Total war required  Political centralization and the extension of government power  Economic regimentation and alternate sources of labour  The active support of the population, to be manipulated and enhanced through censorship and propaganda - A state can only build up their army to a certain degree - Britain had never forced people to fight (conscription)  Realized it wasn't feasible not to have a draft because they had to keep up with the size of other armies  Introduce universal conscription in 1916 2 - The Creation of War Industry o Private Enterprise and Profiteering - Industrialists thought war was great  Demand for products going up  Increased prices because of high demand - Government at the mercy of private enterprises - Workers furious because they worked long hours for low wages but industrialists made shit tons of money - If you tell the industries they can't make a profit, they lose incentive to be efficient  Britain introduces an excess profit tax - Workers get threatened, "you need to work for the war effort or else" o State Control, Labour Shortages and Unions - The state tells people what they can and can't produce  You must produce products that help the war effort - Production has to be made more efficient  Production line > assembly line  Standardization of labour  Electrification in factories - Some states drafted people into industries  Everyone’s efforts have to be funneled to the war - Germans forced conquered Belgian state to provide 20,000 workers a week to work in German factories  This didn't work well  People who don't want to produce because they're on the other side don't produce well o Women in the Factories - Women able to take over jobs that were previously only fit for men to do - Women began to fill in gaps that had been created - Some French guy (Joff?) said France would lose the war if women stopped working for 20 minutes - 1.5 million war drafted into industry in Britain  Proving their value as citizens 3 - The Naval War, Blockades and Shortages - British blockade of Germany to the North Sea  Blockading a m
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