HSM 437 Lecture Notes - Task Analysis, Instructional Design, Job Analysis
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Chapter 8 – Orientation and Training:
Employees been recruited and selected, the next step is orienting them to their new company their new job.
Orientation programs before and after hiring is important.
o New employees need a clear understanding of company policies, performance, and operating procedures.
Purpose of Orientation Programs:
Employee Orientation (onboarding): A procedure for providing new employees with basic background information bout
the firm and the job.
o Orientation is one component of an employer’s new-employee socialization:
The ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes, standards, values, and
patterns of behaviour that are expected by the organization.
During this process a new employee isn’t as productive; if the socialization process is quickly
completely, then productivity will be achieved quicker.
Orientation helps the employee to perform better by providing necessary information about company rules and
o Helps to clarify the expectations of an employer and reduce reality shock:
Reality shock – The state that results from the discrepancy between what the new employees expects
from his new job and the realities of it.
o Deciding on work goals is important to discuss with a new employee.
Content of Orientation Programs:
A new employee is usually given the following:
o A handbook that covers the company history and current mission; working hours and payroll, employee
benefits, and pensions.
o A tour of company facilities and introductions to the employee’s supervisor and co-workers.
o An explanation of job procedures, duties, and responsibilities/ Summary of training
o Explanation of performance appraisal criteria, including: estimated time to achieve full productivity.
Special Orientation Situations:
Diverse Workforce – If a company is not as diverse, it is a change to them. New employees should expect a variety of
reactions from current employees to someone from a different background and be given some tips on how to deal with
Mergers and Acquisitions – Employees who are hired into a newly merged company need to receive information about
the details (company history). Aware of any unresolved difficulties.
Union .vs. Non-Union workers – New employees in unionized positions need to be provided with a copy of the collective
agreement and be told which information relates to their particular job. Payroll deductions need to be explained. Also,
which jobs are unionized and which are not.
Multi-location Organizations – Need to be aware of where the other locations are and what business functions are
performed in each location.
Problems with Orientation Programs:
A number of potential problems can arise with orientation programs. Too much information is provided in a short time
– employee may be overwhelmed.
Sometimes orientation programs don’t cover enough – they leave employees with many questions unanswered.
Evaluation of Orientation Programs:
Orientation programs should be evaluated to assess whether they are providing timely, useful information to new
employees in a cost-effective manner. Three approaches:
o Employee reaction – Interview or survey new employees for their opinion on the usefulness of the orientation
o Socialization effects – Review new employees at regular intervals to assess progress toward understanding
o Cost/benefit analysis – Compare orientation costs (printing handbooks/time spent orienting) with benefits of
orientation (reduction in errors, rate of productivity)
Executives do not usually participate in orientation activities.
Integration at senior levels can take several months.
Key aspects of the integration process:
o Identify position specifications – the ability to deal with an overcome jealousy
o Provide realistic information to job candidates and provide support
o Assessing each candidates previous record at making organizations transitions
o Announcing the hiring with enthusiasm.
o Stressing the importance of listening.
o Assisting new executives balance their work to change cultural norms.
The training process:
Training employees involves a learning process in which workers are provided with the information and skills that they
need to successfully perform their jobs.
o Training – The process of teaching employees the basic skills that they need
Training should be a part of an organizations strategic plan.
o Training is a necessity for improving employers’ competiveness/ strengthens employee commitment
Training and Learning:
Training is a learning process. People have three main learning styles: auditory, visual, and kinesthetic.
o Auditory – learning through talking and listening
o Visual – Learning through pictures and print
o Kinesthetic – Tactile learning through a whole-body experience.
First, it’s easier for trainees to understand material that is meaningful.
Secondly, make sure it is easy to transfer new skills and behaviours from training to the job.
Thirdly, motivate the trainee. Motivation affects training outcomes independently of any increase in cognitive ability.
Fourthly, prepare the trainee – trainees pre-training preparation is a crucial step in the training process.
Legal Aspects of Training:
Human rights and employment equity legislation, several aspects of employee training programs must be assessed with
an eye toward the programs impact.
The five step training process:
Needs Analysis: Identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and productivity. Analyze the
audience and use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance objectives.
o The purpose is to identify the specific job performance skills needed.
Instructional Design: Make sure all materials complement each other, written clearly, and blend into unified training
geared directly to the stated learning objectives.
o The actual content of the training program is compiled
Validation: Introduce and validate the training before a representative audience.
Implementation: Boost success with a train-the-trainer workshop that focuses on presentation-knowledge and skills in
addition to training content.
Evaluation and Follow up: Assess program success according to: reaction, learning, behaviour, &results.
Step One – Training Needs Analysis:
Determine what training is required and what the job entails, break it down into subtasks.
Task analysis and performance analysis are the two main techniques for identifying training needs:
o Task analysis – A detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it requires so that an
appropriate training program can be instituted.
o Performance analysis – Verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether that
deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means (transferring the employee).
Task Analysis: Training needs of new employees
Task analysis is a detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it requires so that an appropriate
training program can be instituted.
Task Analysis Record Form:
o Information regarding the jobs required tasks and skills in a form that is especially helpful for determining
training requirements. Six types of information:
Column One – Task List – The jobs main tasks and subtasks are listed.
Column Two – When and How often Performed – frequency with which the task and subtasks are
performed is indicated.
Column Three – Quantity and quality of performance – The standards of performance for each tasks
and subtask are described in measurable terms.
Column Four – Condition under which performed – Indicates the conditions under which the tasks
and subtasks are to be performed.
Column Five – Competencies and specific knowledge required – This is the heart of the task analysis
form. The specific skills or knowledge required for each task is listed.
Column Six – Where best learned – Whether the task is learned best on or off the job based on several
Performance Analysis: Determining the training needs of current employees
o Verifying whether there is a significant performance deficiency. It is identified whether the deficiency can be
fixed through training or transferring the employee.
o Once training needs have been identified – training objectives can be established.
Concrete measurable training objectives should be identified. Ex: What will the employee be able to do
differently after the training
Step Two – Instructional Design:
The training program can be designed after the training needs have been determined.
Traditional Training Techniques:
o On-the-job training (OJT): Involves having a person learn a job by performing it. In many firm, OJT is the only
Trainees learn while producing
Facilitates learning – since trainees get feedback while doing
o Apprenticeship Training:
Began in the middle ages, apprenticeship training involves having the learner study under a master
Apprentices become skilled workers through a combination of classroom instruction.
170 trades have established apprenticeship programs.
o Informal Learning:
Day-to-day unplanned interactions between the new worker and his or her colleagues.
“Any learning that occurs in which the learning process is not determined or designed by the
o Job Instruction Training:
A step-by-step process that is a listing of each jobs basic tasks, along with key points, in order to
provide training for employees in sequence.
The steps show what should be done, whereas the how/why explain the instructions (Key points)
o Classroom training:
Continues to be the primary method of providing corporate training in Canada (lectures are widely
Advantages: Quick way of providing knowledge to a large group of trainees
o Audiovisual Techniques:
Very effective (videotapes & CD’s) – however, more expansive then lectures.
When to Use: Illustrating the sequence that should be followed
Three options – buying an existing product, making one, or using a production company.
Videoconferencing – Connecting two or more distant groups by using audiovisual equipment.
o Programmed Learning:
A systematic method for teaching job skills that involve presenting questions or facts, allowing the
person to respond, and giving the learner immediate feedback of the accuracy of their answers.
Reduces training time by about one third.
Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner
Allowing the person to respond
Providing feedback of the accuracy of his or her answers
o Vestibule or Stimulated learning: Training employees on special off-the-job equipment – airplane pilot training.
A necessity when it is too costly or dangerous to train employees on the job.
o Electronic training techniques have been developed that allow training professionals to provide learning in a
more flexible, personalized, and cost-effective manner.
o E- Learning: Delivery and administration of learning opportunities and support via computer, networked, and
web-based technology, to enhance employee performance and development.
Effective e learning requires good instructional design. Describe the benefits that they will receive.
o Computer-based training (CBT) – The trainee uses a computer-based system to interactively increase his or her
knowledge or skills.
Involves presenting trainees with integrated computerized simulations and using multimedia (video,
audio, text, and graphics) to help the trainee to learn how to do the job.
Advantages: Instructional consistency, mastery of learning, flexibility for the trainee, and increased