Organizational Behavior - MHR 405
Amir Ali Golbazi
Interpersonal & Organization Wide Communication
The Importance of Effective Interpersonal & Organization-Wide Communication
Communication is essentially the process of exchange in information between a sender and receiver with the ultimate
goals of reaching a clear or mutual understanding. It is proven that the most effective work units engaged in frequent
communication with their teams members. Effective communication is the foundation of for human relationships both
inside and outside of work.
Work is also facilitating in way called Telecommunicating also known as “telework”, this is where an individual employee
works from either the home, satellite ofﬁce, or mobile ofﬁce with a computer connection to the main ofﬁce.
Communication Process Model
The following ﬁgure depicts a model of the communication process. The main components of model include Sender,
Receiver, Channel (medium of transmission), Barriers, & a Feedback Loop.
Sender: Form the Message in his or her
mind and then encode it into a message
that can be transmitted. In addition a
channel of transmission medium must be
Receiver: Must receive the message and
must then decode the message to try and
understand it and not let barriers such as
perceptual ﬁlters or the status of the
sender to distort the decoding.
Barriers: Are the things which interrupt the ﬂow of communication between sender & receiver, bad us sometimes called
The Actual Message: Contains the thoughts and feelings that the communicator is attempting to convey to the receiver.
Messages usually have two components, the Thoughts/Concepts communicated with words, ideas or symbols and the
Feelings/Emotional Component portrayed by the intensity and tone of the message.
Feedback: Is any information a person receives as a result of action, performance, or behavior on others or when
compared to a standard or a model. This essentially occurs when the receiver actually responds to the senders message
and thus continuing the cycle represented in the model until a ﬁnal conclusion is accepted by both parties.
Non-Verbal Communication is all elements of communication without the use of words,
meaning anything including your body, or the tone set by your attire etc. Based on research,
most of the message conveyed from sender to receiver is done by Non Verbal
Communication. Consider Th.e following ﬁgure.
SPEECH VARIATIONS (PARALANGUAGE)
These include pitch, loudness, tempo, voice tone, duration, laughing and crying.
This is essentially the study of body movements, such as posture. This aspect of non verbal communication tends to be
varied throughout cultures.
FACIAL & RED EYE BEHAVIOR & THE USE OF INTERPERSONAL SPACE (PROXEMICS)
Facial expression and eye behavior depict ones own feelings towards the emotional states of others. This skill is in great
relation to effective interpersonal communication and describes what is known as Emotional Intelligence (EQ) which is
the ability to recognize & manage emotional in oneself and others.
Finally the study of interpersonal space across cultures is known as Proxemics.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 6 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1 Barriers to Communication
These are factors that block or signiﬁcantly distort successful communication between two parties. Barriers can form
within all aspects of communication. The following are examples of barriers to communication.
BARRIERS: CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN COMMUNICATION
Many times during communication between people of different races there lies a difference in what is meant to be polite.
Such clashes of cultural differences exist in the form of individuals vs collectivism and power distances. In addition there
lies a difference between high and low context cultures. A Low Context Culture uses language as it primary tool to
express thoughts, feelings, and ideas. In a High
Context Culture language is valued to maintain
social harmony, meaning that people in such cultures
are more prone to the hidden meaning of language
while in low context culture the people tend to be
much more direct.
BARRIERS: PERCEPTUAL SCREENS
This barrier concerns people from the same culture,
as people come from diverse backgrounds.
Perceptual Screens are the way a person views the
world and how we interact with other in which differs
from person to person due to diversity in terms of
age, gender, race, experiences, culture and individual needs.
BARRIERS: LANGUAGE, AMBIGUITY, & JARGON
Essentially this refers to the variation in the use of language between different groups of people, such as a manager vs
employees. In addition in some language there lies certain dialects and sounds which confuse foreigners to that form of
pronunciation. Furthermore, the use of jargon which is terms given by certain groups of people to specify a commonly
used word, causes confusion among those whom are not familiar with the ﬁeld of work using that term.
BARRIERS: STATUS DIFFERENCES & FILTERING
Research had proven that manager communicate differently when speaking to their employees rather than a fellow
manager. This has also lead to Filtering which is the deletion and delay of softening negative information as it move sup
the hierarchy so it sounds more favorable to higher managers. This occurs in organizations with upward communication
styles and less in horizontal or downward ones.
BARRIERS: GENDER DIFFERENCES
Studies have found differentiation in the communication styles of males and females. Females tend to focus more on
rapport building dimensions of relationships, while males on status building dimensions. Secondly in terms of
communication styles, women at work are more likely to downplay uncertainty, while men are likely to minimize doubts. In
addition women are more likely than men to be direct when telling others what to do. Finally men will talk two times more
than a women in a mixed sex conversation setting.
BARRIERS: DEFENSIVE COMMUNICATION CLIMATE
Defensive communication climates at work create huge problems. In this case people with this condition tend to point
ﬁngers and come across as evaluative rather than descriptive. They also tend to use language which is controlling rather
than trying to deﬁne the problem. A list of the various types of defensive characteristics is given below.
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 6 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 2 Strategies for Effective Interpersonal Communication
This is a process that goes beyond passively absorbing a speakers words, it includes hearing, attending, understanding,
remembering, and responding. Hearing is physically listening and can be attained by diminishing noise. Attending is the
process of deciding to pay attention. Understanding depends on ones knowledge of the sources, context of the message,
and intelligence. Remembering depends on repetition, amount of information, and whether it may be a one-way
communication. Active listening is also known as MINDFUL listening. Some ineffective listening types are Pseudo-
listening which is pretending to listen, Selective-Listening which is responding to some conte