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Chapter 8 MHR.pdf

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405

Organizational Behavior - MHR 405 Chapter 8 Amir Ali Golbazi Decision Making & Creative Problem Solving Creativity at Work Creativity is the ability to discern new relationships, examine subject from new perspectives and to form new concepts from existing notions. It can be a personality trait or an achievement. Some things to note here is that a company by the name of Synectics INC distinguishes creativity by Big C meaning big breakthrough and Little C meaning small stuff. INDIVIDUAL & ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCE ON CREATIVITY AT WORK The amount of creativity displayed in a work environment depends on numerous factors. The following are the factors which formal research has found as a determinant: - Cognitive Processes, Personality Factors & Mental Blocks Individuals in groups tend to use Divergent Thinking which refers to the individuals ability to generate several potential solutions to a problem. In addition unconscious processes such as dreaming are a factor in creativity. Furthermore personalty factors such as intellect, artistic values, interests, high energy, need for achievement, independence of judgement, intuition, self condence, and a creative self image are a factor in creativity as well. In addition those in good, and pleasant moods tend to be more creative as they are less prone to mental blocks. - Right Brain vs Left Brain Preferences The right side of the brain is responsible for creativeness, while the left is the centre for logic, detail, and planning. Those whom are predisposed to the right side of their brain are more creative naturally. However the ideal is to be able to utilize both in various situations. ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES ON CREATIVITY Listed below are rst the facilitators of creativity and then its barriers. - Organizational Facilitators of Creativity LEADERSHIP - Leaders can encourage the norms associated with increases innovation, by support the group in terms of risk taking, tolerance for mistakes, teamwork, and speed of action. In addition leaders can take risks themselves providing a model for others while still being open to ideas. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE - The structure of an organization can nurture the creativity of its employees. By creating an openminded and free environment, employees are given the opportunity to display their creative talents. PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT & COMMUNICATION - Information ow and the physical environment are important to ideas can surface and be heard. It is vital for an organization to be open to information and create an environment where information can be transmitted with ease. RECOGNITION - Recognition is important as rewards for creativity not only support those whom contribute but also encourage others to become creative as well. Studies have shown that monetary rewards improve creativity, while material rewards do not. CULTURE - Allowing employees to fail, making work more fun, and providing creativity training also facilitate creativity. Furthermore, organizations can improve creativity by exposing employees to new ideas with job rotations. ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS To CREATIVITY Some of these include focus on how work will be evaluated, being watched over while working, competing with others, internal political problems, harsh criticism of new ideas, destructive internal competition, and the avoidance of risk. An important thing to note is that a creative organization works when it is matched up with individuals whom value creativity as well. A myth in this case is that you are either born with creativity or you dont have it. - Four Stages of Creative Process PREPARATION - Seeking out new experiences and opportunities to learn. Creativity grows from knowledge, and experiences such as travel and exposure to education. INCUBATION - At this phase the individual engages in other pursuits while the mind considers the problem and works on it. It is when reective thought is often conducted subconsciously. Relaxation and reection improves creativity. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR MHR 405 CHAPTER 8 AMIR ALI GOLBAZI 1ILLUMINATION - Occurs when individual senses an insight for solving the problem. AHA VERIFICATION - This is conducted to determine whether the solution or idea is valid. This is accomplished by thinking through the implications of the decision, presenting the idea to another person, or trying out the decision. Individual Decision Making at Work Decision Making is a conscious process of making choices among one or more alternatives and developing a commitment to a course of action. There are two types of decisions. For instance a simple and routine matter for which a manager has an established decision rule is called a Programmed Decision. A new complex decision that requires a creative solution is known as a Non-Programed Decision. MAKING EFFECTIVE INDIVIDUAL DECISIONS An Effective Decision is a timely decision that meets a desired objective and is accepted by the individuals affected by it. It must be noted that decision making is a critical aspect of a managers job, and that as roles are given more power, decision making tactics become more complex and different. ETHICAL ISSUES IN INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING Ethical implication of decisions are also inuential in organizations. These decision are inuenced by factors such as individuals differences and rewards and punishments offered in the organization. An Ethical Decision is a made after exploring alternatives and their consequences so that actions are consistent ones personal values and commonly held values of the organization and society. Many people however rely on religion and culture for this. MODELS OF DECISION MAKING THE RATIONAL MODEL OF DECISION MAKING Rationality is a logical step by step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences. The eight steps of this model are based on classic economic theory with the following assumptions: 1) The outcome will be completely rational 2) Decision maker has a consistent system of preferences which is used to choose the best alternative 3) Decision mak
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