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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 405
Genevieve Farrell

CHAPTER 2 CREATING A POSITIVE WORK ENVIORNMENT: ATTITUDES, VALUES, ETHICS WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO CREATE A POSITIVE WORK ENVIORNMENT ۰ Employees today desire a greater balance and harmony between work and personal life and are willing to give up 21% of their work hours and salary to achieve that ۰ High performing organizations: those that produce extraordinary results and sustain this performance over time and over changing market conditions. These organizations adapt industry best practices while preserving their unique processes. They view failure as opportunities for continuous learning. ۰ Best practice methods: The processes, practices, and systems that an organization does particularly well and that are widely recognized as improving the organizations performance and efficiency in specific areas. WHAT DOES A POSITIVE WORK ENVIORNMENT LOOK LIKE? ۰ A positive work environment can mean different things in different organizations and it can mean different thing to different people ۰ Three critical elements that all organizations must consider if they are serious about creating and sustaining a positive place to work; organizational environment, components of a job and understanding individual differences Organizational Environment ۰ The culture is strong, adaptive and strategically appropriate; leaders influence, motivate and enable others ۰ Values are clear; leaders express the values in a consistent fashion, acting as role models to ensure alignment across the organization ۰ Communication is open and supports knowledge management, problem solving, and effective coordination of work Components of a Job ۰ Jobs are designed to optimize employee motivation ۰ Clear roles, goal that match abilities and skills Understanding Individual Differences ۰ Understand the differences that employees bring and leverage these differences EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES ۰ Attitude: a psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor. It is the basis of an evaluative response to a particular situation, event or issue. ۰ Attitudes are learned. Our responses to people and issues evolve over time. Two major influences on attitudes are direct experience and social learning. Factors That Influence the Relationship between Attitudes and Behaviour ۰ Attitude relevance, timing of measurement, personality factors, social constraints ۰ Attitudes that address an issues in which we have some self-interest are more relevant for us and our subsequent behaviour is consistent with our expressed attitude ۰ The timing of measurement can also affect the relationship. The shorter the time between the attitude measurement and the observed behaviour, the stronger the relationship ۰ Personality factors also influence the attitude-behaviour link. Self-monitoring and agreeablness ۰ Social constraints: The social context provides information about acceptable attitudes and behaviors Work Related Attitudes ۰ Work related attitudes that are commonly used to describe an employee’s level of positive feeling toward an organization are job satisfaction, organizational commitment, employee engagement Job Satisfaction ۰ Job Satisfaction: a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences ۰ Dissatisfaction can occur if employee’s expectation when hired is not met ۰ Employees develop a certain set of beliefs about the terms of the exchange agreement regarding what they will do and what the organization will provide, this is called a psychological contract. Organizational Commitment ۰ This is the strength of an individual’s identification with an organization ۰ There are three kinds of organizational commitment 1. Affective commitment: based on an individuals desire to remain in an organization. It encompasses loyalty and employees show deep concern for the firms welfare 2. Continuance commitment: based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave 3. Normative commitment: based on an individuals perceived obligation to remain with an organization ۰ Certain organizational conditions such as participation in decision making, job security and certain job characteristics positively affect commitment ۰ When employees feel a sense of commitment to an organization they often exhibit organizational citizenship behaviour: behaviour that is above and beyond the call of duty ۰ Citizenship behaviour is especially important in team based organizations Employee Engagement ۰ Is a state of emotional and intellectual involvement that employees have in their organization ۰ Engaged employees are those who stay with the organization, feel comfortable expressing their views, and strive to achieve their best ۰ Employees who are engaged exhibit
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