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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 523
Al- Karim Samnani

MHR Chapter 2: Job Analysis & Design (pg 56-73) Job Analysis: systematic study of a job to discover its specifications, skill requirements, etc., for wage-setting, recruitment, training, or job-simplification purposes  Jobs are at the core of every organization’s productivity – if they aren’t well designed and done right, productivity suffers  For a HR department to be effective, its members must have a clear understand of the jobs found throughout the organization Job: group of related activities and duties Position: collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by an individual Human Resource Information System (HRIS): large organizations use this to store information on various jobs; HRIS permits easy retrieval of relevant job details; it able provides variety of information about the job, jobholders and past performance standards; major HR activities that rely on job analysis info: 1. Careful study of jobs 7. Efforts to improve quality of work life 2. Elimination of unnecessary job 8. Identification of realistic challenging requirements performance standards 3. Matching of job applicants to job 9. Redesign of jobs to improve requirements performance/employee morale 4. Planning of future HR requirements 10. Fair and accurate appraisal of employee 5. Determination of employee training needs performance 6. Fair and equitable compensation of employees STEPS IN THE JOB ANALYSIS PROCESS Phase 1: Preparation for Job Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Analysis Information  Step 1: Familiarize  Step 4: Determine w/the organization and sources of job data the jobs  Step 5: Data collection Phase 3: Use of Job Analysis  Step 2: Determine uses instrument design of job analysis  Step 6: Choice of Information  Step 3: Identify jobs to method for data be analyzed collection Phase 1: Preparation for Job Analysis Step 1: Familiarization with the organization and its jobs  Important to have an awareness of an organization’s objectives, strategies, structure, inputs and desired outcomes  Intent is to collect relevant and accurate information about jobs and factors determining job success Step 2: Determine Uses of Job Analysis Information  Job analysis plays critical role for many HR functions – while most common uses are in the selection process, training and designing performance appraisal and compensation systems, job analysis may also be done to eliminate discrimination against specific employee groups/assist in job design  Details collected during a job analysis are influenced by the objectives of the study – it is critical to define the objectives early on Step 3: Identify Jobs to be analyzed  Senior management and all key supervisors of the firm should be consulted before selecting jobs for in- depth analysis, as the jobs selected for analysis can affect the strategic success and over HR policies of the firm  The type, number and geographical dispersion of the hobs selected for analysis also influence the choice of data collection method  Resource and time constraints often restrict analysis of all jobs MHR Chapter 2: Job Analysis & Design (pg 56-73)  Jobs that are critical to success of organization, jobs that are difficult to learn or perform (to determine extent of training), jobs in which the firm continuously hires new employees (identification of clear job requirements assumes great importance), jobs that exclude members of the protected classes Phase 2: Collection of Job Analysis Information Step 4: Determine Sources of Job Data  Most direct source of information about a job is the job incumbent but various other sources – both human and nonhuman – may help o Ex. training and safety manuals, organization charts and other company records, supervisors, job experts, work colleagues  Internet has become valuable source for information about various jobs and occupation groups Step 5: Data Collection Instrument Design Analysts most often develop questionnaires that are called checklists/job analysis schedules. Job analysis schedules: checklists that seek to collect information about jobs in a uniform manner; a summary of purpose, goals and how job is performed. Most standardized forms attempt to measure the following items:  Status and Identification: status refers to whether the job is exempt from overtime laws. Other identification includes job title, division and titles of supervisors and sometimes a unique job identification number. Without these entries, users of job analysis data may rely on outdated info or apply the info retrieved to wrong job which may misdirect other HR activities  Duties and responsibilities: listed to give more detailed insight into position; questions on responsibility are expanded significantly when the checklist is applied to management jobs; additional questions map areas of responsibility for decision making, controlling,, organizing, planning and other management decisions  Human characteristics and working conditions: undercover the particular skills, abilities, education, training, experience and other characteristics that jobholders need; valuable to fill job openings, description of work environment improves job understanding. Working conditions may explain the need for particular skills, training, knowledge or even particular job design. Knowledge of hazards allows the human resource department to redesign the job/protect workers through training and safety equipment  Performance Standards: questionnaire seeks information about job standards which are used to evaluate performance. Forms for job analysis:  Functional job analysis (FJA): classifies tasks using three functional scales related to data, people and things; each ranking behaviours according to complexity. The job analyst indicates the level oat which the employee is operating for each of the three categories; this is done at each of the three functional scales, resulting in a quantitatively evaluated job  Occupational Information Network (O*NET): for many decades, the US Department of Labour used a Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) to classify jobs and job skills, but changing technology required a different approach. The new O*NET lists only 1000 occupations compared to 12 000 used by DOT.  Fleishman Job Analysis System (F-JAS): well researched job analysis method based on a list of 52 cognitive, psychomotor, physical, sensory abilities. The actual scales use a seven point anchor indicating the different levels of abilities; used mostly in the US  Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): offers more quantitative and finely tuned description of jobs than F-JAS. Using five-point scale, it aims to determine the degree to which 194 different task elements are involved in performing a particular job. Allows grouping of job elements in logical and quantitative manner and the number of job elements covered under various categories are large. Claimed to make job comparison easy, useful for lower level jobs  Critical Incident Method (CIM): focuses on critical job behaviours, duties and responsibilities. A job incumbent will be asked to give examples
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